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<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Some Countries in Asia>

Image of IETC publication (Some Asian Countries) The countries of Asia have seen growing pressure on water resources, with increasing demand and costs, for agricultural, domestic and industrial consumption. This has brought about the need to maximize and augment the use of existing or unexploited sources of freshwater. There are many modern and traditional alternative technologies for improving the utility and augmenting the supply of water being employed in various countries, but with limited application elsewhere due to the lack of information transfer among water resources managers and planners.

The "Source Book of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in some countries in Asia" was prepared by the Danish Hydraulic Institute as part of the joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Water Branch and International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) initiative to provide water resource managers and planners, especially in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition, with information on the range of technologies that have been developed and used in the various countries throughout the world. UNEP wish to thank the Danish Hydraulic Institute and those individuals involved in the preparation of the Source Book. The final revision of the Source Book was assisted by V. Santiago, C. Strohmann, and E. Khaka from UNEP IETC and Water Branch, respectively.

This information was gathered through surveys carried out on a regional basis--in Africa, Western Asia, East and Central Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Small Island Developing States. The results, including this Source Book, will be compiled into a Global Source Book on Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation to be used throughout the countries of the world.

It is hoped that the technologies summarized here will be useful in the sustainable development of the countries of Asia and other regions.


----- Table of Contents -----
1. The Freshwater Imperative
3.Organization of the Source Book
4.Survey Methodology
5.Summary of the Survey Results
5.1 Bangladesh
5.2 India
5.3 Nepal
5.4 Thailand
6. Recommendations of the Workshop
7. Information Sources

1. Water Conservation Technologies

1.1 Dual Water Distribution System
1.2 Evaporation Reduction

1.3 Coconut Pick-ups
2. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies
2.1 Sewage Reclamation Using Conventional Wastewater Treatment
2.2 Sewage Reclamation Using Reverse Osmosis
2.3 Wastewater Treatment Using Wetlands
2.4 Wastewater Treatment Using Duckweed
2.5 Wastewater Treatment Using Lagoons
2.6 Other Technologies of Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
3. Freshwater Augmentation
3.1.1 General Rainwater Harvesting Technologies (1)
3.1.2 General Rainwater Harvesting Technologies (2)
3.2 Rainwater Harvesting for Drinking Water Supply
3.3 Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting for Domestic Water Supply
3.4 Rainwater Harvesting for Agricultural Water Supply
3.5 Rainwater Harvesting for Irrigation Water Supply
3.6 Rainwater Harvesting for Community Water Supply
3.7 Rainwater Harvesting for Multiple Purpose Use
3.8 Open Sky Rainwater Harvesting
3.9 Rainwater Harvesting in Ponds
3.10 Artificial Recharge of Groundwater
3.11 Fog, Dew and Snow Harvesting
3.12 Bamboo Pipe Water Supply System
3.13 Hydraulic Ram
3.14 Development and Protection of Natural Springs
3.15 Restoration of Traditional Stone Spouts
4. Upgrading Water Quality

4.1 Desalination
4.2 Pond Sand Filtration
4.3 Biological Pretreatment of Raw Water


5.1 Water Conservation and Recycling - Gujarat State Fertilizer Corporation, India
5.2 Traditional Method of Soil and Water Conservation - Coconut Pick-ups, India
5.3 Use of Reclaimed Water - Hindustan Petroleum Corporation, Limited, India
5.4 Reclaimed City Sewage as Industrial Water - Madras Fertilizers Limited, Madras, India
5.5 Rainwater Harvesting - The Thai Rainwater Jar
5.6 Daungha Rainwater Collection Water Supply Project, Nepal
5.7 Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater - Krishna Delta, India
5.8 Artificial Groundwater Recharge - India
5.9 Integrated Water Conservation - Bhilai Steel Plant, India
5.10 Drip Irrigation - India

1. Additional References
2. Table of Conversion Factors for Metric and U.S. Customary Units
1. The UNEP Water Branch
2. Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI)


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