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<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augumentation in Africa>

image of publication (Africa) The countries of Africa have seen growing pressure on water resources, with increasing demand and costs, for agricultural, domestic and industrial consumption. This has brought about the need to maximize and augment the use of existing or unexploited sources of freshwater. There are many modern and traditional alternative technologies for improving the utility and augmenting the supply of water being employed in various countries, but with limited application elsewhere due to the lack of information transfer among water resources managers and planners.

The "Source Book of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Africa" was prepared by the Institute of Water and Sanitation Development (IWSD) in collaboration with the Centre Regional pour L'Eau Potable et l'Assainissement a Faible Cout (CREPA), the Network for Water and Sanitation International (NETWAS) and the Training, Research and Network for Development (TREND) as part of the joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Water Branch and International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) initiative to provide water resource managers and planners, especially in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition, with information on the range of technologies that have been developed and used in the various countries throughout the world. UNEP wish to thank the Institute of Water Supply and Sanitation and those individuals involved in the preparation of the Source Book. This Source Book was edited by Dr. J. Thornton and page set by N. Aron. The final revision of the Source Book was assisted by V. Santiago, C. Strohmann and E. Khaka from UNEP IETC and Water Branch, respectively.

This information was gathered through surveys carried out on a regional basis--in Africa, Western Asia, East and Central Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Small Island Developing States. The results, including this Source Book, will be compiled into a Global Source Book on Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation to be used throughout the countries of the world.

It is hoped that the technologies summarized here will be useful in the sustainable development of the countries of Africa and other regions.

----- Table of Contents -----


2.Purpose of the Source Book
3. Organisation of the Source Book
4. How to Use the Source Book
5. Survey Methodology
6. Summary of the Survey Results
7. Recommendations
8. References


1. Agricultural Technologies

1.1 Fresh Water Augmentation Technologies
1.1.1 Planting Pits (Zay)
1.1.2 Demi-lunes or Semi-circular Hoops
1.1.3 Katumani Pitting
1.1.4 Permeable Rock Dams
1.1.5 Contour Stone Bunding
1.1.6 Tied Contour Ridges
1.1.7 Fanya-juu Terracing
1.1.8 Flood Harvesting Using Bunds
1.1.9 Earthen Bunds
1.1.10 External Catchments Using Contour Rings
1.1.11 Sand Abstraction
1.1.12 Lagoon-front Hand-dug Wells
1.1.13 Sub-surface Dams, Small Dams, and Sand Dams
1.1.14 Cloud Seeding
1.1.15 Tidal Irrigation
1.2 Water Quality Improvement Technologies
1.2.1 Artificial Wetland for Wastewater Treatment
1.3 Wastewater Treatment Technology and Reuse
1.3.1 Wastewater Reuse
1.4 Water Conservation
1.4.1 Conservation Tillage
1.4.2 Deficit Irrigation
1.4.3 Savanna Wetland Cultivation
1.4.4 Plants for Water Conservation Gardening
1.4.5 Porous Clay Pots and Pipes for Small-scale Irrigation
2. Domestic Water Supply
2.1 Fresh Water Augmentation Technologies
2.1.1 Protected Springs
2.1.2 Rock and Roof Catchments
2.1.3 Fog Harvesting
2.1.4 Groundwater Abstraction in Urban Residential Areas
2.1.5 Groundwater Abstraction using Handpump-equipped Wells
2.1.6 Rope Washer Pump
2.1.7 Artificial Groundwater Recharge
2.1.8 Well-tank Borehole Well
2.1.9 Cisterns
2.1.10 Palm Petioles
2.2 Water Quality Improvement Technologies
2.2.1 Denitrification of Groundwater
2.2.2 Iron Removal Unit
2.2.3 Use of Natural Plants
2.2.4 In-stream Water Quality Upgrading
2.3 Wastewater Treatment Technologies and Reuse
2.3.1 Direct Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater
2.3.2 Indirect Reuse
2.3.3 Regeneration Water
2.4 Water Conservation
2.4.1 Urban Water Conservation
3. Mining and Industry
3.1 Fresh Water Augmentation Technologies
3.1.1 Ground water Harvesting
3.1.2 Surface Water Harvesting
3.2 Water Quality Improvement Technologies
3.2.1 Electrodialysis
3.3 Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
3.3.1 Industrial Water Reuse
3.4 Water Conservation
3.4.1 Dry Cooling at Power Stations
3.4.2 Utilisation of Seawater for Power Station Cooling

4.1 Tied Ridging -- Domboshawa, Zimbabwe
4.2 Freshwater Augmentation, Zimbabwe
4.3 Tidal Irrigation, The Gambia
4.4 Spring Protection -- Mukono District, Uganda
4.5 Water Augmentation --Laikipia, Kenya
4.6 Recycled Water -- Achimota Brewery, Ghana
4.7 Water Recycling -- Tarkwa Gold Field, Ghana


1. List of Abbreviations
2. Table of Conversion Factors for English and Metric Unit
1. The UNEP Water Branch
2. Institute of Water and Sanitation Development (IWSD)

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