State of Waste Management in South East Asia
Industrial solid waste - the non-toxic or non-hazardous waste generated by
various industries is normally not identified as different from municipal solid
waste coming from domestic and commercial activities. In many ASEAN countries,
it has been included as part of municipal solid waste. As a result, there is
an absence of a systematic database on industrial solid waste and the exact
rates of industrial waste generation are not known. The lack of information
on industrial solid waste is lamentable because it can actually include a wide
range of materials that may have different levels of impact on the environment.
The types of industrial solid waste would include packaging materials, paper,
housekeeping wastes, food wastes, scrap materials such as glass and ceramics,
resins, plastics, metal and plastic scraps, stones, cloth, rubber, straw, wood
waste, products which are off-specification and a variety of materials not
officially specified as or are known to be hazardous/toxic.
Yangon City in Myanmar generates about 500 tons industrial solid waste a year,
which comprises packing paper 10 percent, scrap materials 5 percent, wood wastes
5 percent, straw 30 percent, cloth 5 percent, glass 5 percent and others 40
percent from industries which include leather, cement, brick, glass, ceramic
ware, asbestos cement, and marble factories, wood industry and chemical plants.
Mandalay City, also in Myanmar, generates 4,792.09 tons of wastes from light
industries (56.43 percent food, 38.37 percent mixed inorganic, 4.49 percent
wood, 0.37 percent plastic/rubber, 0.20 percent cloth/leather, 0.07 percent
paper and 0.07 percent others). Thus the variations from city to city, even
within the same country can be very wide.
It is reported in the Draft Final Report of the Study on the Master Plan for
Bangkok and its vicinity in the Kingdom of Thailand, 2001, that the generation
of industrial solid waste in Bangkok and its vicinity was estimated at about
2.365 million tons in 2001, with projected increase to 2.485 and 2.602 million
tons in 2005 and 2010 respectively. In Bangkok, since mid-1990s, industrial
solid waste is collected and disposed of in an environmentally sound manner
in licensed waste treatment facilities, which are controlled and regulated
by the Department of Industrial Works.
In Malaysia non-scheduled wastes from industry are normally collected by either
private or public contractors, who are licensed by the local authorities.
Singapore uses only licensed contractors. It is estimated that
Singapore has an industrial waste intensity of approximately 0.2 kg per US
Dollar industrial production compared with approximately 2.3 kg per US Dollar
industrial production for People’s Republic of China and 1 kg per US
Dollar for Japan (ESCAP, 1997. Refer to Figure 3). The generation ratio of
municipal waste to industrial solid waste is 1:3 for PR China, 1:8 for Japan,
and likely to be lower for Singapore. It is surmised that as the ASEAN countries
develop, there is likely to be substantial increase in industrial solid waste
generation. This would pose serious challenges to those ASEAN countries that
do not have adequate collection, processing and disposal systems for this type
Figure 3: Waste Intensity of Industrial Production in Singapore Compared to
PR China and Japan of Industrial Solid Waste in Member Countries