Waste Management - Publications and Tools
Waste and Climate Change – Global Trends and Strategy Framework, Nov 2010
– The Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has directed its International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) branch to take action in the area of waste management. There are substantial co-benefits of waste management in the context of climate change. As a first step to realize these co-benefits, this report seeks (a) to examine the potential of climate impacts and benefits of different waste management activities, and (b) to present a UNEP-lead framework strategy to assist member countries in prioritising their resources and efforts for waste management and climate change mitigation. The framework strategy is intended to align with the internationally recognised waste management hierarchy, in which waste prevention receives the highest priority, to optimise the co-benefits for climate change mitigation.
Lessons Learned on Mainstreaming Pilot Projects into Larger Projects, Dec 2009 (PDF 246KB)
– This report summarizes lessons learned from implementing Environmentally Sound Technology (EST) pilot projects by the International Environmental Technology Centre of UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP-DTIE-IETC). The document aims to inform national level mainstreaming of the EST pilot project results, and provides lessons learned for decision makers in national governments and for international technical cooperation personnel.
The featured projects were conducted within three pillars of IETC’s focal areas. They are: Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands project in the water-sanitation pillar; Integrated Solid Waste Management project in China, India and Lesotho under the waste management pillar; and ESTs for Building waste Reduction in Indonesia (DEBRI) project under the disaster management pillar.
Each project and cross-cutting lessons learned focus on six areas, which are project management structure, governance, capacity building, EST implementation, financing, and local conditions/infrastructure.
Converting Waste Plastics into a Resource – Assessment Guidelines, Dec 2009 (PDF 678KB)
– Economic growth and the change of consumption and production patterns are resulting into rapid increase in generation of waste plastics in the world. The world’s annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million tonnes in the 1950s to nearly 100 million tonnes nowadays. Waste plastics are one of the most promising resources for fuel production. This document is aimed to raise awareness and assist on the collection and analysis of data to generate a baseline on waste plastics to further develop viable business propositions for converting waste plastics into fuels.
Converting Waste Plastics into a Resource – Compendium of Technologies, Dec 2009 (PDF 1.4MB) – Economic growth and the change of consumption and production patterns are resulting into rapid increase in generation of waste plastics in the world. The world’s annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million tonnes in the 1950s to nearly 100 million tonnes nowadays. Waste plastics are one of the most promising resources for fuel production; however the effective conversion requires appropriate technologies to be selected according to local economic, environmental, social and technical characteristics. This compendium is compiled to assisst in the selection process. Technologies for the conversion to solid, liquid and gaseous fuels are listed in it.
Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass into a Resource – Compendium of Technologies, Oct 2009 (PDF 5.2MB) – Globally, 140 billion metric tons of biomass wastes are generated every year from agriculture equivalent to about 50 billion tons of oil. As raw materials, biomass wastes have attractive potentials for large-scale industries and community-level enterprises. For efficient and effective conversion, appropriate selection of technologies is one of the vital pre-conditions. This compendium is compiled to assist in selection process for the technologies. The technologies for different type of waste agricultural biomass and different sizes are also considered. Technologies listed in the Compendium are limited to those that use cellulosic agricultural waste biomass.
Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan – Training Manual Vol. 1: Waste Characterization and Quantification with Projections
for Future, Jun 2009 (PDF 884KB)
– This book is the first volume in the series of training manuals on developing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) plan. This manual aims to build the capacity of practitioners and policy makers in waste characterization and quantification with projections for future for all the waste generating sectors viz.: residential, commercial, construction and demolition, healthcare and industrial sectors.
The objective of the manual is to facilitate characterization of different types of wastes from each sector and quantification of the level of waste generation. The manual provides a methodology to conduct studies leading to collection and analysis of the data from different sectors. An example has been worked out to make this manual user friendly.
Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan – Training Manual Vol. 2: Assessment of Current Waste Management System and Gaps therein, Jun 2009 (PDF 294KB)– This book is the second volume in the series of training manuals on developing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) plan. This manual aims to build the capacity of practitioners and policy makers for assessing the current waste management system and practices covering all the stages of waste management chain viz.: primary generation and disposal, collection and transportation, sorting and material recovery for recycling, treatment and resource recovery, and final disposal.
The objective of the manual is to facilitate identification of important aspects of waste management system and gaps therein with reference to regulations, institutional arrangements, financial mechanisms, technology and infrastructure, and roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders in the current system. The manual provides a methodology to conduct studies leading to collection and analysis of the information.
Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan – Training Manual Vol. 3: Targets and Issues of Concern for ISWM, Jun 2009 (PDF 301KB)– This book is the third volume in the series of training manuals on developing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) plan. This manual aims to build the capacity of practitioners and policy makers for setting up targets for ISWM and identifying stakeholders’ issues of concern.
The objective of the manual is to facilitate setting targets expected to be achieved through the ISWM Plan. The manual also provides guidelines for conducting stakeholder consultation to identify their concerns with reference to financial aspects, environmental impacts, technology considerations and cultural aspects.
Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan – Training Manual Vol. 4: ISWM Plan, Jun 2009 (PDF 3.6MB)– This book is the fourth and last volume in the series of training manuals on developing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) plan. This manual aims to build the capacity of practitioners and policy makers for developing a comprehensive ISWM Plan by utilizing the information collected earlier regarding waste characterization and quantification, assessment of current waste management system and gaps therein, and targets and issues of concern for ISWM.
The objective of the manual is to facilitate the development of a comprehensive ISWM Plan including policy, technical and voluntary interventions. The manual provides a methodology for developing the ISWM Plan utilising the information from Volume 1 and Volume 2 as baseline information and information from Volume 3 for contextualising the Plan. The manual also provides guidelines for developing specific projects/schemes along with an implementation strategy.
Resource Augmentation by Tapping Renewable Resources and by Utilizing Waste in Viet Nam, Feb 2008 (PDF 646KB)
– Rapidly growing countries are facing challenges on two fronts. Firstly, they need to ensure continuous availability of resources to support rapid industrialization and improved living standards. Secondly, they have to control the pollution from industrial and municipal sources. To address both of these challenges with one strategy, UNEP implemented the project in sugar industry in Viet Nam to harvest rainwater, to reuse wastewater and to convert organic waste into compost. Rainwater harvesting and wastewater reuse reduced the demand for freshwater and it also helped to reduce the quantity of wastewater to be discharged. This, in addition to environmental benefits, also helped the sugar industry to save on the fees for obtaining freshwater and on the charges for discharging wastewater. Compost from organic waste in sugar industry helped their farmers, who supply sugarcane, to reduce their costs for buying fertilizer. The project was implemented in partnership with Viet Nam Cleaner Production Centre. The local partners and technical staff from sugar industry were trained to undertake designing and implementation of environmentally sound technologies for rainwater harvesting, wastewater reuse and composting.
E-Waste Vol. 1: Inventory Assessment Manual, Dec
2007 (PDF 1.7MB) - This book is the first volume of E-waste
manual to build the capacity of practitioners and policy makers for
preparing WEEE/E-waste inventory. The objective of the manual is to
identify E-waste as an environmental issue and to quantify its extent.
This manual summarises the available legislations on WEEE/E-waste in
different countries and provides a methodology to design and use E-waste
inventory assessment studies/projects. Furthermore, E-waste management
chain (starting from electrical and electronic equipment manufacture,
production, import, consumption, E-waste generation, treatment and disposal)
has been discussed to identify the "mechanism of trading" and related
socio-economic and environmental risks. Methodologies for E-waste inventory
assessment in a city/geographical area/country have been elaborated
with reference to developing countries. This manual also provides case
studies from developing countries.
E-Waste Vol. 2: E-waste Management Manual, Dec 2007 (PDF 2.2MB)
- This book is the second volume of E-waste manual to build the capacity of practitioners and policy makers for preparing and developing WEEE/E-waste management system.
This manual summarises the current practices in developed and developing countries on WEEE/E-waste management, the technologies for E-waste management (collection, transportation, treatment and disposal) and the important pre-requisites for effective and sustainable WEEE/E-waste management.
Conceptual approach for developing regulatory system of E-waste management has been provided for policy makers in order to design an E-waste management system. Current practices for E-waste management have been reviewed from developed and developing countries. Financial viability of E-waste management has been discussed for effective and sustainable E-waste management.
A case study from a developing country, which describes each aspect of E-waste management including techno-economic feasibility of establishing E-waste treatment facility is also presented.
Strategic Elements in Implementing the 3R Platform: UNEP’s Contribution, March 2006 (PDF 70KB)
- As a contribution to the 3R Ministerial Meeting
of April 2005, UNEP launched the “3R Platform” as an implementing
mechanism for the 3R initiative in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific
The platform provides support for concrete 3R activities, such as demonstration
projects and institutional strengthening exercises, building on experiences
in Japan and other countries, and tailoring them to the needs and specific
conditions of each country. This document is intended to outline the
strategic elements that can guide the activities implemented under the
the 3R Platform. It outlines the key areas and themes that need to be
focused on in implementing the 3R approach.
Training Module: Closing an Open Dumpsite and Shifting from Open Dumping to Controlled Dumping and to Sanitary Land Filling, 2005 (PDF 4MB)
- A policy shift from
open dumping to sanitary landfilling has implications on local preparedness
to operate and manage a landfill as well as on how the current dumpsites
will be abandoned. Consequently, there is a need to build and enhance
the technical and management capacities of local authorities. In recognition
of this need and as part of UNEP global effort to promote environmentally
sound technologies, IETC developed training programmes for capacity
building. This publication is a Training Module on Solid Waste Management
designed especially for local authorities and their staff.
Integrated Waste Management
Scoreboard, Dec 2005 (PDF 608KB) (IETC Integrative Series) - This
publication presents an Integrated Waste Management Scoreboard, which is a planning
tool that incorporates a methodology for evaluating existing municipal solid
waste management programs and systems. It has been developed by the United Nations
Environment Program for use by representatives from governmental authorities
in the ASEAN Region as well as for communities and institutions that are involved
in management of municipal solid waste. It can be applied at the national, state/provincial/regional,
municipal, community, and institutional levels.
Waste Management, Dec 2005 - This
Publication looks at the use of technologies that are environmentally sound
for managing municipal solid wastes in developing countries. It is designed
as a sourcebook on solid waste management, covering a multitude of topics including
the principles of solid waste management, processing and treatment, and final
disposal. It also covers key non-technical aspects, and offers regional overviews
on Eco-Towns in Japan: Implications and Lessons for Developing Countries
and Cities, Jun 2005 (PDF 1MB)
- Eco Towns in Japan were developed in the last 10 years by utilizing regional
and industry in Japan. Local governments and enterprises have worked in partnership
to build such complexes. Eco towns have enabled a number of developmental objectives
to be met simultaneously. It has helped to stimulate the local economy, secure
employment, as well as dispose waste in an environmentally sound manner, and
protect air and water resources. A number of lessons have been learnt in the
setting up of such eco towns in Japan, not only within these eco towns, but
also on the cities where they are located. This report focuses on identifying
the key lessons learnt in the setting up of the eco towns. These lessons will
help in the development of step-by-step guidelines that will help local / national
governments to set up eco-towns in their countries. The report was produced
by GEC with inputs from IETC.
of Waste Management in South East Asia, 2004 - This
report is a result of a small survey conducted in 2002 by UNEP IETC in
with the ASEAN
for Multilateral Environmental
Agreements (AWGMEA). The survey was undertaken to prepare a background paper
on waste management in the sub-region prior to the holding in Kuala Lumpur
in October 2002 of an ASEAN High Level Consultation Meeting. The focus is to
on a proposal to establish a regional framework for collaboration in sustainable
integrated waste management. This is a joint publication of UNEP IETC and the
ASEAN Secretariat. It is envisaged to be a reference for planning, programming
and policy reviews on waste management in each member state of ASEAN. It is
also planned to be updated every two years so that it can serve as a supplement
the GEO, a biennial publication of UNEP, on the specialized area of waste management.