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<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augumentation in Latin America and the Caribbean>

image of publication (Latin America and the Caribbean)) The Latin American and Caribbean countries have seen growing pressure on water resources, with increasing demand and costs, for agricultural, domestic and industrial consumption. This has brought about the need to maximize and augment the use of existing or unexploited sources of freshwater. There are many modern and traditional alternative technologies for improving the utility and augmenting the supply of water being employed in various countries, but with limited application elsewhere due to the lack of information transfer among water resources managers and planners. The "Source Book of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean" was prepared by the Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment of the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States (OAS) as part of the joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Water Branch and International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) initiative to provide water resource managers and planners, especially in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition, with information on the range of technologies that have been developed and used in the various countries throughout the world. UNEP wish to thank the Organization of American States and those individuals involved in the preparation of the Source Book. The final revision of the Source Book was assisted by V. Santiago, C. Strohmann and E. Khaka from UNEP IETC and Water Branch, respectively. This information was gathered through surveys carried out on a regional basis--in Africa, Western Asia, East and Central Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Small Island Developing States. The results, including this Source Book, will be compiled into a Global Source Book on Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation to be used throughout the countries of the world. It is hoped that the technologies summarized here will be useful in the sustainable development of the countries of Latin America, the Caribbean and other regions.

----- Table of Contents -----


1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Organization of the Source Book
4. How to Use the Source Book
5. Survey Methodology
6. Summary of the Findings
7. Recommendations


1. Freshwater Augumentation Technologies
1.1 Rainwater Harvesting from Rooftop Catchments
1.2 Rainwater Harvesting in situ
1.3 Fog Harvesting
1.4 Runoff Collection from Paved and Unpaved Roads
1.5 Runoff Collection Using Surface and Underground Structures
1.6 Flow Diversion Structures
1.7 Water Conveyance by Marine Vessels
1.8 Water Conveyance by Pipelines, Aqueducts, and Water Tankers
1.9 Artificial Recharge of Aquifers
1.10 Groundwater Pumping Using Non-conventional Energy Sources
2. Water Quality Improvement Technologies
2.1 Desalination by Reverse Osmosis
2.2 Desalination by Distillation
2.3 Clarification Using Plants and Plant Material
2.4 Disinfection by Boiling and Chlorination
2.5 Filtration
3. Wastewater Treatment Technologies and Reuse
3.1 Wastewater Treatment Technologies
3.2 Wastewater Reuse Systems
4 Water Conservation
4.1 Raised Planting Beds and Waru Waru Cultivation
4.2 Automatic Surge Flow and Gravitational Tank Irrigation
4.3 Small-Scale Clay Pot and Porous Capsule Irrigation
4.4 Dual Water Distribution
4.5 Other Water Conservation Practices
5.1 Rainwater Harvesting in Honduras
5.2 Fog Harvesting in Chile
5.3 Underground Dams in Brazil
5.4 Seawater/Brackish Water Desalination by Reverse Osmosis in the British Virgin Islands
5.5 Recycling of Industrial Effluents in Jamaica
5.6 Treated Wastewater Reuse in Barbados
5.7 Clay Pot and Porous Capsule Irrigation in Brazil

1. Acknowledgments
2. Table of Conversion Factors for Metric and U.S. Customary Units

1. The UNEP Water Branch
2. Organization of American States


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