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State of Waste Management in South East Asia


A. National

In the ASEAN countries, various regulations and standards have been introduced for waste management. Many have sewer-related laws, which cover wastewater quality regulations for sewerage systems. Town or City planning Acts and water pollution control laws are normally related to such sewerage acts. Examples of acts/laws relating to waste management include:

Country: Brunei Darussalam

  • National Development Plans and National Environment Strategy for broad policy statements on waste management
  • Administrative procedure manuals and guidelines for waste handling and disposal
  • Sectoral legislation - Penal Code, Minor Offences Act, Land Code, Water Supply Act, Petroleum Mining Act, Forestry Act, Fisheries Act, Miscellaneous Licensing Act and Municipal Boards Act.

Country: Cambodia

  • Law on Environmental Protection and Natural resources management
  • Sub-Decree on Solid Waste Management
  • Sub-Decree on Water Pollution Control

Country: Indonesia

  • Environment Management Act Number 23, 1997
  • Government Regulation Number 82, 2001 (Water Quality Management and Wastewater Controlling
  • Local Government Regulation – each district
  • Government Regulation Number 18, 1999 juncto Government Regulation Number 85, 1999 about Hazardous Waste Management
  • Presidential Decree Number 61, 1993 about Basel Convention Ratification on the Control of Trans-Boundary Movement of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal
  • Number Kep-01 to Kep-05/BAPEDAL/09/1995 Various procedures and requirements for hazardous and toxic wastes
  • Number Kep-68/BAPEDAL/05/1994 on procedures for license for hazardous waste storage, collection, operations of treatment equipment, treatment and final disposal.

Country: Lao PDR

  • Ministry of Industry and Handicraft Decree on Industry Management, 1992
  • Ministry of Industry and Handicraft Decree on Discharges and Emissions, 1994
  • Environmental Action Plan 1993, revised 1995
  • Environmental Protection Law

Country: Malaysia

  • Environmental Quality Act 1974, and its subsidiary legislation thereunder
  • Local Government Act 1976
  • Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974
  • Drainage Works Ordinance 1954 (Revised 1988)
  • Urban Storm water Management Manual for Malaysia 2000

Country: Myanmar

  • Pollution Control and Cleansing Rule
  • The Protection of Environment Directive
  • The Municipal Act
  • The City of Yangon Municipal Act
  • The Union of Myanmar Public Heath Act
  • Mandalay City Development Committee regulation

Country: Philippines

  • Integrated Environmental Protection and Natural Resources Management Policy 25
  • Presidential Decree 1586 The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) System
  • Presidential Decree 984 Pollution Control Law, 1978: Water Quality Management Program
  • Clean Air Act 1999 (RA 8749)
  • Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003), Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000
  • Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Waste Management (RA 6969)
  • The Philippine Agenda 21
Box 2
Philippines Republic Act 9003: Year 2000, Approved in January 2001

An Act providing for an Ecological Solid Waste Management Program, creating the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties, appropriating funds therefore, and for other purposes.
Section 17. The Components of the Local Government Solid Waste Management Plan includes, but is not limited to:

  1. City or Municipal Profile - estimated population; map of city/municipality; estimated solid waste generation, by source; waste disposal inventory
  2. Waste characterization
  3. Collection and transfer
  4. Processing
  5. Source Reduction
  6. Recycling
  7. Composting
  8. Solid waste facility capacity and final disposal
  9. Education and public information
  10. Special waste
  11. Resource requirement and funding
  12. Privatization of solid waste management projects
  13. Incentive programs

Country: Singapore

  • Environmental Public Health Act: Environmental Public Health (General Waste Collection) Regulations - under the National Environment Agency
    • Environmental Public Health Toxic Industrial Waste) Regulations
  • Sewerage and Drainage Act and associated subsidiary legislation - under the Public Utilities Board
  • Environmental Pollution Control Act and its Regulations - under the National Environment Agency
  • Hazardous Waste (Control of Export, Import and Transit) Act
    • Hazardous Waste (Control of Export, Import and Transit) Regulations

Country: Thailand

  • Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act, B.E. 2535
    • Water Quality Standards
    • Solid Waste, Night soil and Hazardous Waste Management
    • Toxic Substance Legislation

Country: Vietnam

  • National Conservation Strategy 1988
  • Law on Environmental Protection 1994
    • Directive on Urgent Measures on Solid Waste Management in Urban & Industrial Areas, 1997
    • Decision on Hazardous Waste Management 1999
  • National Plan for Environment & Sustainable Development 1999

While statements on sanitation are usually very positive in long-term plans and development strategies, generally, waste management as a priority is not as high as other development priorities. Budgets for waste management are generally low. For example, in Indonesia, its overall budget in 2001 and 2002 for Environmental Sector was only 1 percent of the National Budget.

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