space
About UNEP
space
space
United Nations Environment Programme
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics
top image
space
space space space
space
space

State of Waste Management in South East Asia


C. Hazardous Waste

As members of ASEAN continue to develop, it is expected that there will be increasing use of toxic chemicals and generation of hazardous wastes.

Different ways of classifying and defining hazardous wastes have led to some difficulties in forming a uniform database for hazardous waste in the region. Nevertheless; most hazardous wastes are recognized as coming from industrial, agricultural and manufacturing processes, as well as from hospital and health-care facilities. The high volume generators are the chemical, petrochemical, petroleum, metals, wood treatment, pulp & paper, leather, textiles and energy production industries.

The estimated annual production of hazardous waste from some selected ASEAN Countries is given in Table 4.

Table 4: Estimated Annual Production of Hazardous Waste in Selected Countries, Thousand Tons
 
1993
2000
2010
Indonesia
5,000
12,000
23,000
Malaysia
377
400
1,750
Philippines
115
285
530

Singapore

28
72
135
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
460
910
1,560
Thailand
882
2,215
4,120
Source: Hernandez 1993; UNEP 1994; United Nations 1995; and Nelson 1997.

Updated figures for Singapore are: 230,000 tons of hazardous/toxic waste were generated in 2001, out of which 88 percent was waste chemicals, 8.0 percent oily sludge (mainly from tanker cleaning), and 4.0 percent biohazardous waste.

Malaysia reported the generation of about 344,550 tons of hazardous wastes classified as scheduled wastes for 2000. Of the total 33.3 percent were from the metal industry, 23.95 percent from the chemical, 9.56 percent from the electronic industry, 5.67 percent from the gas industry, 4.26 percent from the plastic/rubber industry, 6.89 percent from small industries and 16.37 percent others.

In the Philippines, a total of 278,393 tons of hazardous wastes were generated in 2000 as reported in the Environmental Management Board (EMB) - Japan International Cooperative Agency (JICA) study. This consisted mainly of 24.5 percent of inorganic chemical wastes. 20.2 percent alkaline wastes, 11 percent putrescible organic wastes, and 9.7 percent acid wastes. The rest were 8.1 percent Oil, 5.8 percent Organic chemicals, 4.0 percent Plating wastes, 5.3 percent reactive organic wastes, and 11.4 percent other wastes.

It was further reported in the Draft Report of the State of Pollution of Thailand 2001 that hazardous wastes generated in 2001 were approximately 1.68 million tons. These were broken down according to sources as follows: 1.31 million tons (78 percent) from the industrial sector and 0.37 million tons (22 percent) from the community sector. Industrial hazardous waste consisted of 66 percent heavy metal sludge, 15 percent acid-base contaminated with heavy metals, 13 percent waste oils and 6 percent others. Hazardous wastes generated by community activities came from: automobile shops (48 percent), households (21 percent), gas stations (9 percent), agriculture (9 percent), hospital & laboratory (5 percent), and others like ports, photo shops, cleaners and laundries (8 percent).

Hazardous wastes in Myanmar included metabolic wastes, organic compounds, and toxic heavy metals from dyeing, printing and finishing processes of the textiles and photoengraving industries.

In Hanoi, Vietnam, about 22,000 tons of hazardous wastes were generated in 1999. Eighty-nine percent came from industry and 11 percent from hospitals. A JICA study in 2000 anticipates a rise of hazardous waste generation to 38,500 tons in 2005 and 78,500 tons by 2020.

 

D. Municipal Wastewater

The volume of municipal wastewater generated depends on the supply and demand for water. In developing countries, the requirement is about 160 to 200 liters/person/day, while for developed countries it can be as high as 250 to 300 liters/person/day. It is estimated that 60 percent of the total population of developing countries have access to water supply, 90 percent of which is in urban areas. The main uses of water would be for toilet, laundry, bath, kitchen, etc. In Indonesia, typical usage is 30 percent for toilet, 15 percent for laundry, 25 percent for bath, 10 percent for kitchen and 20 percent for other uses.

Based on the population of each country in 1999 and using an average of 150 litres per capita per day for developing countries, the estimated volume of municipal wastewater in the ASEAN countries varies from 49,500 m3 in Brunei Darussalam to 31.05 million m3/day in Indonesia. See Figure 4 below.


Figure 4: Estimated Municipal Wastewater Generated by the ASEAN Countries, 1999

(bigger image)

Associated with municipal wastewater generation is domestic sludge generation. Malaysia produces about 3.2 million m3 domestic sludge each year (Regional Institute of Environmental Technology, 2000). By 2005 this is expected to rise to 4.3 million m3 per year. In Malaysia sludge is handled separately from municipal and industrial solid wastes. In Singapore sludge (500,000 m3/year) is handled as municipal solid waste. It is first treated with soil conditioner before being applied primarily for land reclamation.

Table 5 provides information about average quantities collected from each household in Vietnam according to each city classification, where Class I refers to bigger cities and Class III to smaller cities. The relatively large difference in sludge collection per household could be attributed to the fact that several households share toilet facilities. Furthermore, in the larger cities there are blocks of flats to be considered.

Table 5: Quantities of Septic Sludge and Nightsoil Collection in Vietnam (1995)
City
Septic tank sludge
Nightsoil
l/d/hh
l/d/person
l/d/hh
l/d/person
Class I
1.27
0.28
0.48
0.11
Class II
0.87
0.16
0.61
0.11
Class III
0.35
0.08
0.85
0.19
l/d/hh: litres per day per household
l/d/person: litres per day per person
 
Source: Vietnam National Urban Wastewater and Sanitation Strategy Nov. 1995

Table of Contents
  • Brochure
  • IETC Brochure


  • International Year of Forests
  • International Year of Forests


  • World Environment Day
  • ??????


  • UNEP Campaign
  • UNite to Combat Climate Change