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State of Waste Management in South East Asia

C. Future Plans

The Singapore Green Plan 2012 has a “zero landfill” objective for the longer term. It includes a national waste recycling program, which has a target of 60 percent recycling by 2012. More commercial applications for recycled products are being currently developed. An Eco-Recycling park has been set up and a private sector initiative - Waste Minimization and Recycling Association of Singapore - has been established.

Malaysia is encouraging self-regulation and waste minimization by developing programs, such as, MAWAR (Malaysian Agenda for Waste Reduction) and Cleaner Production to educate industry in particular and the public in general on government efforts towards IWM. Malaysia’s National Solid Waste Action Plan will be ready by end of 2003. The Urban Storm Water Management Manual released in 2001 provides guidance for storm water management. All its programs towards Integrated Waste Management will be guided by the recently launched National Environmental Policy 2002.

Indonesia is developing a National Policy for Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation for the integrated management of drinking water, solid waste, municipal wastewater and storm water. The final draft is expected to be ready in 2003. In addition, the Government has been developing an Act or Government regulation on Solid Waste Management.

Brunei is reactivating its National Solid Waste Management Strategy, revising its Waste Management Master Plan, as well as proposing a new Environmental Act. A new integrated waste disposal facility is also being developed.

The Philippines has proposed an Urban Environment Management Framework, which will incorporate the concept of integrated waste management. The Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003) was passed in 2000 and the National Commission for Solid Waste Management has been formed.

D. Regional and International Cooperation

On the international level protocols, such as, the Basel Convention provide measures for control of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. It is envisaged that regional cooperation initiatives can help alleviate or resolve some of the issues raised by the ASEAN countries that lack resources for IWM. Currently, there are short to medium-term bilateral programs between individual ASEAN member countries and with some European countries (e.g. Denmark, Germany, Sweden), U.S.A, and Japan, which are helping to fill short-term gaps and assist in longer-term planning for various aspects of waste management, including IWM.

Existing bilateral/regional programs with involvement of one or more of ASEAN member countries include the following:

  1. Asian Development Bank projects with most of the ASEAN member countries (regional and bilateral)
  2. Asia-Pacific Roundtable for Cleaner Production (regional)
  3. Canada, e.g. CIDA (mainly bilateral)
  4. Denmark, e.g. Danida (and the former Danced) projects with Thailand, Malaysia, etc. (mainly bilateral)
  5. Germany, e.g. CDG, INWENT (regional and bilateral)
  6. Global Environment Center, Japan (mainly regional)
  7. Japan, e.g. JICA, with most of the ASEAN member countries (mainly bilateral)
  8. Regional Network of Local Authorities For the Management of Human Settlements (mainly regional)
  9. Sweden, e.g. SIDA (mainly bilateral)
  10. UNDP - GEF (regional and bilateral)
  11. UNDP - The Urban Governance Initiative (mainly regional)
  12. UNEP-IETC (regional and bilateral)
  13. UNEP/ROAP (regional and bilateral)
  14. UN Habitat (regional and bilateral)
  15. Urban Waste Expertise Program (regional and bilateral)
  16. United States Asian Environment Partnership (regional and bilateral)
  17. Waste Management Asia (regional and bilateral)
  18. World Health Organization (regional and bilateral)
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