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Newsletter and Technical Publications

<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in West Asia>


FOREWORD

We are pleased to introduce the Eighth Volume (f) of the series of Sourcebooks on Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation now focusing in the West Asian Region where water is a very important and invaluable resource. The Region is characterized for its aridity and vast deserts making water to evaporate very fast while at the same time permeating into the soil rapidly before it could be properly used or contained. Furthermore, the very scant rains existing in the region are not evenly distributed making the situation even more problematic as a whole.

...The present Sourcebook provides a comprehensive description of the existing technologies available in West Asia so that decision makers, government and non-governmental organizations can use as a reference to promote the sound planning and management of freshwater resources in this particular region.

The International Environmental Technology Centre (UNEP-DTIE-IETC) together with the Regional Office of UNEP for West Asia (ROWA) and the Arab Centre for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD) prepared the Sourcebook for the purpose of enhancing the exchange of information and facilitation on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation between regions, enable interested experts and governments officials to learn about the variety of technological methods use in arid, semi-arid and desertic regions, and provide a source of information to planners and managers where similar characteristics may call for similar technological approaches.


 

----- TABLE OF CONTENTS -----
 
  FOREWORD
 
  PART A - INTRODUCTION
 
  1. Freshwater Resources in West Asia
  2. Rationale for Developing Source Book
  3. Objectives of Source Book
  4. Methodology Used to Prepare Source Book
  5. Contents of Source Book
  6. Conclusions
  7. Recommendations
 
  PART B TECHNOLOGY PROFILES
 
  1. Technologies for Supplementing Freshwater Supply
    1.1. Rainwater Harvesting: Microcatchment Systems
      1.1.1. Rainwater Harvesting from Residential Rooftops
      1.1.2. Greenhouse Rainwater Harvesting
      1.1.3. Rainwater Harvesting in the Field
    1.2. Harvesting of Surface Runoff Water
    1.3. Artificial Groundwater Recharge
    1.4. Groundflow Collection Through Underground Structures
    1.5. Pumping of Groundwater Using Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
      1.5.1. Wind Energy
      1.5.2. Solar Energy
      1.5.3. Water Energy
    1.6. Water Conveyance
      1.6.1. Water Conveyance by Pipelines
      1.6.2. Water Conveyance by Open Channels
      1.6.3. Water Conveyance by Tanker Trucks
    1.7 Cloud Seeding
  2. Water Quality Improvement Technology
    2.1 Water Desalination Technologies
      2.1.1. Distillation Desalination (DD)
      2.1.2. Reverse Osmosis Desalination (RO)
      2.1.3. Electro Dialysis Desalination (ED)
    2.2. Water Softening
    2.3. Purification of Dam Water for Drinking Purposes
    2.4. Disinfection
      2.4.1. Chlorine Disinfection
      2.4.2. Ozone Disinfection
      2.4.3. Ultra Violet Radiation Disinfection
    2.5. Water Treatment
      2.5.1. Wastewater Treatment
      2.5.2. Industrial Effluent Treatment
    2.6 Water Reuse
      2.6.1. Reuse of Treated Water
      2.6.2. Subsurface Drainage Technology
 
  PART C - CASE STUDIES
 
  1. Rainwater Harvesting at Mahassa Area, Syria
  2. Hill Reservoirs in Lebanon
  3. Water Harvesting in Wadi Al-Mwaqquar, Jordan
  4. Wadi Zikt Dam for Artificial Recharge
  5. Aflaj Systems in Oman
  6. Reuse of Wastewater in Bahrain
  7. Seawater Desalination in Kuwait, Using Multi-Stage Flash Evaporation Technology
  8. Wastewater Treatment Using Water Hyacinth in Iraq
  9. Wastewater Treatment Using Overland Flow Technology
  10. Water Conservation Technology (Ceramics)
 
  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
 
  LIST OF MEASUREMENT UNITS
 
  PROFILES
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