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Newsletter and Technical Publications

<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augumentation
in Some Countries in Asia>

6. RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE WORKSHOP

The participants in the Workshop:

  • Felt that the source book would be of immense value to policy makers and practitioners in the field, realizing the depletion of water resources now and in the years to come.

  • Suggested that the source book should highlight the sensitivity and limitations of the technologies mentioned.Recommended that the cost of the technologies should differentiate the capital and operation and maintenance costs.

  • Recommended that the source book be disseminated to existing networks on water, health, and the environment (e.g., ENSICNET, CEHANET, INFORTERRA, etc.) rather than through new networks.

  • Recommended that the source book have a specific section on water quality and a discussion of water quality issues related to the various technologies for fresh water augmentation in the Introduction.

  • Agreed to recommend that every country introduce and adopt a Ground Water Act if one does not already exist.

TABLE 6. Summary of Freshwater Technologies and Related Issues .

TECHNO
-LOGY
SOURCE WATER/USE EXTENT OF USE EFFECTIVE-
NESS
CAPITAL
COST
OPERATING
COST
MAINTEN
-ANCE
COST
SKILLS
REQUIRED
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
RAINWATER
JARS
Rainwater/ domestic use Extensive Very high $16/m3 0 $6/m3/year Minimal Small construction equipment
RAINWATER TANKS Rainwater/ domestic use Less
extensive
Medium $24/m3 0 $8/m3/year Minimal Small construction equipment
SHALLOW WELLS Groundwater/ domestic use Extensive
but declining
High $120/well 0 0 Minimal Manual tools for digging and concrete work
IMPACT WELLS WITH HANDPUMPS Groundwater/ domestic use Sporadic Low $200/well 0 0 Minimal Homemade digging equipment and handpump
DEEP WELLS WITH HANDPUMPS Groundwater/ domestic use Extensive High $16 000/ well 0 $80/year Minimal Drilling rig, piping and handpump
DEEP WELLS WITH ELEC. PUMPS Groundwater/ domestic use Extensive, upgrade of Impact Wells High $2 400/well up to $200/year $80/year Minimal Drilling rig, piping, electric pump and accessories
PONDS Rainwater/ domestic use Sporadic Low $3/m3 of earth moved 0 $20/year Minimal Traditional tools for earthwork
SPRINGS Groundwater/ domestic use Sporadic Low $4 000/km of pipe $1 000/year $200/year Medium Tools for concrete work and piping
PIPED WATER, VILLAGE SUPPLY Groundwater/ domestic use Extensive, upgrade of Deep Wells High $12 000 to $56 000/system $1 000/year $1000/year Medium Tools for concrete work, piping, pumps, tanks, valves and other accessories
WEIRS Streamflow/ domestic and agricultural use Extensive High $12 000/ unit $80/year $80/year Medium Tools for wood and concrete work and some earthwork
SMALL RESERVOIRS Streamflow/ domestic and agricultural use Extensive, but few sites remain Low $160 000/ unit $960/year $80/year Medium Tools for woodwork, bamboo, gravel and stone

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