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United Nations Environment Programme
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Newsletter and Technical Publications

<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augumentation
in Some Countries in Asia>

3. ORGANISATION OF THE SOURCE BOOK

This Source Book contains three main parts. Part A presents an overview of the survey results and identifies the need for the identification of freshwater augmentation technologies in the region. The status and current use of alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in selected countries within the region are summarised based on information gathered during field surveys conducted during 1995. The methodologies used to obtain the information also are summarized, together with the results of the surveys, additional observations, conclusions, and recommendations about the technologies currently in use to augment freshwater resources. Part B, Alternative Technologies, presents a series of technology profiles which describe in greater detail the technologies currently in use to maximize water use efficiency and to augment freshwater supplies. The information provided in this part is based on an extensive literature review and the field surveys carried out in the region within four selected countries. The different technologies include water conservation, wastewater reuse, rainwater harvesting, artificial recharge of groundwater, and desalination technologies, amongst others. In addition to the technical description, each technology is analysed in terms of the extent of its use; its operation and maintenance; level of involvement; costs; effectiveness; suitability; cultural acceptability; advantages and disadvantages; and any further development of the technology that may be required. Part C contains information on selected case studies identified during the field surveys. The purpose of the case studies is to highlight especially innovative, cost effective technologies that have been successfully adopted within the region.

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