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<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augumentation in Small Island Developing States>

Image of IETC publication (Small Island Developing States) The Small Island Developing States of the world have seen growing pressure on water resources, with increasing demand and costs, for agricultural, domestic and industrial consumption. This has brought about the need to maximize and augment the use of existing or unexploited sources of freshwater. There are many modern and traditional alternative technologies for improving the utility and augmenting the supply of water being employed in various countries, but with limited application elsewhere due to the lack of information transfer among water resources managers and planners. The "Source Book of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Small Island Developing States" was prepared by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission as part of the joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Water Branch and International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) initiative to provide water resource managers and planners, especially in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition, with information on the range of technologies that have been developed and used in the various countries throughout the world. UNEP wish to thank the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission and those individuals involved in the preparation of the Source Book. This Source Book was compiled by U. Mogensen. The final revision of the Source Book was assisted by V. Santiago, C. Strohmann and E. Khaka from UNEP IETC and Water Branch respectively. This information was gathered through surveys carried out on a regional basis--in Africa, Western Asia, East and Central Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Small Island Developing States. The results, including this Source Book, will be compiled into a Global Source Book on Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation to be used throughout the countries of the world. It is hoped that the technologies summarized here will be useful in the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States and other regions.


----- Table of Contents -----


1. Background
2. Purpose of the Source Book
3. Structure of the Source Book
4. How to use the Source Book
5. Methodology
6. Results of Discussions at the Workshop on Augmenting Freshwater Resources


1. Technologies Generally Applicable to Island States
1.1 Freshwater Augmentation Technologies
1.1.1 Rainwater Harvesting
1.2 Water Quality Improvement Technologies
1.2.1 Rapid Sand Filtration
1.2.2 Slow Sand Filtration
1.2.3 Disinfection
1.3 Wastewater Treatment Technologies and Reuse
1.3.1 Alternative (Dry) Sanitation
1.4 Water Conservation
1.4.1 Water Resources Planning and Management
1.4.2 Water Conservation and Protection Measures
1.4.3 Groundwater Assessment Technologies
1.4.4 Irrigation Systems
2. Technologies Applicable to Very Small, Low Coral Islands
2.1 Freshwater Augmentation Technologies
2.1.1 Dug Wells
2.1.2 Infiltration Galleries
2.1.3 Pumps
3. Technologies Applicable to Small, High Volcanic Islands
3.1 Freshwater Augmentation Technologies
3.1.1 Boreholes
3.1.2 Runoff Collection Using In-Stream Structures
3.1.3 Runoff Collection Using Surface Structures
3.1.4 Spring Capping
4 Technologies Applicable to Small Islands with Specific Problems
4.1 Freshwater Augmentation Technologies
4.1.1 Importation
4.1.2 Submarine Pipelines
4.2 Water Quality Improvement Technologies
4.2.1 Desalination
4.3 Wastewater Treatment Technologies and Reuse
4.3.1 Wastewater Reuse
4.4 Water Conservation
4.4.1 Dual Distribution System
5.1 Augmenting Freshwater Resources, Kiribati
5.2 Seawater/Brackish Water Desalination by Reverse Osmosis, British Virgin Islands
5.3 Solar-powered Pumping, Federated States of Micronesia
5.4 Composting Toilets, Kiritimati, Kiribati
5.5 Wastewater Reuse Scheme, Barbados
1. Acknowledgements
2. Design of Infiltration Galleries
3. Cost Comparisons
4. Groundwater Assessment Technologies
5. Water Legislation
6. List of Organizations and Institutions
7. Table of Conversion Factors for Metric and U.S. Customary Units

1. The UNEP Water Branch
2. South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC)


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