Newsletter and Technical Publications
<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for
in Small Island Developing States>
PART B - ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
4. TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO SMALL ISLANDS WITH SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
4.2 Water Quality Improvement Technologies
Desalination is a water treatment process that separates salts from
saline water to produce a water that is low in total dissolved solids
(TDS). The use of this process on small islands has obvious benefits as it
opens up a wide range of raw water sources, ranging from the ocean itself
to brackish waters located on-island or underground. The various processes
considered in this chapter are distillation; electrodialysis; reverse
osmosis; and, solar desalination.
The distillation process mimics the natural water cycle in that saline
water is heated, producing water vapour that, in turn, is condensed to
form fresh water. In a laboratory or industrial plant, water is heated
under ambient conditions to the boiling point to produce water vapour.
However, for this to be done economically in a desalination plant, the
boiling point is altered by adjusting the atmo-spheric pressure on the
water being boiled to produce the maximum amount of water vapour under
controlled conditions. The tempera-ture required to boil water decreases
as the pressure above the water decreases. The reduction of the boiling
point is important in the desalination process for two major reasons:
multiple boiling and scale control. These two concepts, boiling
temperature reduction and multiple boiling, have made various forms of
distilla-tion successful in locations around the world. Three types of
thermal distillation units are used commercially; namely, Multistage Flash
(MSF, Figure 32); Multiple Effect Distillation (MED); and, Vapor
Figure 32. Diagram of a multi-stage flash distillation
plant (Buros, 1990).
The basic electrodialysis unit consists of several hundred cell pairs
bound together with electrodes on the outside and referred to as a
membrane stack. Feedwater passes simultaneously through the cells to
provide a continuous, parallel flow of desalted product water and brine
that emerge from the stack (Figure 33). Depending on the design of the
system, chemicals may be added to the streams in the stack to reduce the
potential for scaling. Electrodialysis (ED) is only an economical process
when used on brackish water, and tends to be most economical at TDS levels
of up to 4 000 to 5 000 mg/l. Most of the electrodialysis units sold are
built by one company, Ionics, and use a variation of the basic process
known as electrodialysis-reversal (EDR). Electrodialysis units have a
waste discharge of brackish water ranging in volume from 10% to 50% of its
output of freshwater. The feedwater must be pretreated to prevent
mate-rials from entering the membrane stack that could harm the membranes
or clog the narrow channels in the cells. Post-treatment consists of
stabilizing the water and preparing it for distribution by removing gases
such as hydrogen sulfide and adjusting the pH.
Figure 33. Movement of ions in the electrodialysis
process (Buros, 1990)
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a membrane separation process in which water in
a pressurized saline solution is separated from the solutes (the dissolved
material) by a membrane. No heating or phase change is necessary for this
separation, and the major energy requirement is for pressurizing the
feedwater. In practice, the saline feedwater is pumped into a closed
vessel where it is pressurized against the membrane (Figure 34). As a
portion of the water passes through the membrane, the salt content of the
remaining feedwater increases since there is less water containing the
same total amount of dissolved salts. At the same time, a portion of this
saltier feedwater is discharged without passing through the membrane.
Reverse osmosis units have a waste discharge of brackish water or brine
which could range from 35% to 100% of its output of fresh water, depending
on the feedwater being treated. Two improvements have helped reduce the
operating costs of RO plants during the past decade are the develop-ment
of membranes that can operate efficiently at lower pressures, and the use
of energy recovery devices. Low-pressure membranes are being widely used
to desalinate brackish water as they save on the energy costs associated
Figure 34. Schematic diagram of a reverse osmosis plant
for sea water (Smith and Shaw, 1994).
There are three basic ways in which solar energy is used to desalinate
saltwater. These are humidification, distillation, and photovoltaic
Figure 35. Section of a typical solar still (Smith and
Solar Humidification: This technology imitates a part of the
natural hydrologic cycle by using the Sun=s rays to heat a saline water
source to produce water vapour. This vapour, or humidity, is then
condensed on a cooler surface and the condensate collected as product
water. An example of this type of process is the greenhouse solar still,
in which the saline water is heated in a basin on the floor of the
greenhouse, and the water vapor condensed on the sloping glass roof that
covers the basin (Figure 35). Application of this type of solar
humidification unit (if affordable at all) is best suited for small scale
use by a single family or small village where labour can be organized to
maintain the units.
Solar Distillation: In this process, a solar collector is used
to concentrate solar energy to heat the feedwater so that it can be used
in the high temperature end of a standard thermal desalination process.
This is usually a multiple effect or multistage flash process (see Figure
32). These units tend to be very capital intensive and require specialized
staff to operate them over a long period of time. In addition, they
require additional energy inputs to pump the water through the process.
Desalination with Photovoltaics: Desalting units that use
photovoltaics to provide electrical energy have also been built to operate
standard desalting processes like reverse osmosis (Figure 34) or
electrodialysis (Figure 33). Batteries are used to store energy and
inverters are needed to supply alternating current when necessary. Since
solar energy is usually not available throughout the 24 hours of a day,
without extensive battery systems, the desalting units themselves need to
be sized to produce water for daily consumption during only a portion of
the day. Therefore, a commercial unit must be oversized to produce the
quantity of water needed for most applications. The use of photovoltaics
adds a further degree of complexity to the desalination process, and it
has generally been found that a gas-driven generator can supply the power
for far less capital cost.
Extent of Use
Distillation accounts for about 65% of the world's installed
desalination capacity, with the MSF process making up the highest
proportion of distillation units. The MSF and MED processes are often used
as part of a dual purpose facility where the steam to run the desalination
unit is taken from the low pressure end of a steam turbine that is used to
generate electricity. The remaining steam and condensate is then returned
to the boiler to be reheated and reused. Individual MSF or MED units
generally have a capacity of 1 000 to 20 000 m3/d. Several of
these units can be grouped around an electrical generating plant to
utilize low pressure steam. Facilities with a total water output of 200
000 m3/d or more are not uncommon in the Middle East, while
smaller facilities, consisting of several 5 000 m3/d units,
are used in island locations like St. Thomas and St. Croix in the
Caribbean. VC units are also widely used but, individually, have much
smaller capacities, and, hence, a lower overall total capacity than that
of the MSF and MED plants. The VC units are usually built in the 20 to 2
000 m3/d range, and are often used for supplying water to
island re-sorts, industries, and off-shore drilling sites. Distillation
plants installed on small islands (UNESCO, 1991) include the first
land-based, multi-effect distillation process desalination plant,
installed on Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, in 1928, with a capacity of 60
m3/d (0phir and Manor, 1987), subsequently increased by other
MED and multi-stage flash (MSF) plants to a total capacity of 36 000 m3/d;
one of the first MSF plants, built on Guernsey in the English Channel, in
1960, with a capacity of 2 300 m3/d (Silver, 1987); a number
of MSF plants, installed in the Canary Islands, beginning in the late
1960s, and ranging in size from 2 000 to 20 000 m3/d, and a
number of vapour compression plants with capacities ranging from 500 to 2
000 m3/d (Torrest et al., 1985); a 19 000 m3/d MSF plant,
installed on Aruba, Netherland Antilles (Smith, G., 1986); a low
temperature MED (LT-MED) plant, with a capacity of 17 500 m3/d,
one of a number of MED plants, in the U.S. Virgin Islands (Matz and
Zimerman, 1985); a 6 000 m3/d MED plant in Singapore (Hori,
1984); two 4 500 m3/d multi-effect VC plants in Antigua
(Lucas, 1987); and, VC plants with a combined capacity of 2 600 m3/d
in the Cayman Islands (Beswick, 1987).
Electrodialysis makes up about 5% of the world's installed desalination
capacity. Electrodialysis units are used in applications requiring smaller
volumes of water and can be purchased in units with individual capacities
ranging from 10 to 4 000 m3/d. They are used by individual
homes, resorts, manufacturers, and small municipalities. A large ED
facility would have a capacity of about 40 000 m3/d made up of
many 2 000 to 4 000 m3/d units. Electrodialysis and
electrodialysis reversal plants on small islands include a 21 000 m3/d
ED plant on Gran Canaria used for brackish water desalination; a 15 000 m3/d
ED plant on Corfu, Greece, which became fully operational in 1978 to
supply additional water to meet peak tourist demands during the summer
months; an 1 800 m3/d EDR plant on Bermuda; a number of ED
plants for brackish water desalination on Japanese islands with capacities
ranging from 10 to 1 000 m3/d; and, a 200 m3/d ED
plant for seawater desalination on Sisha Yongxingdao Island, China.
Reverse osmosis makes up about 30% of the world's installed desalination
capacity. Reverse osmosis units are also small relative to thermal
distillation units, and can be purchased in units with individual
capacities from 10 to 4 000 m3/d. They are used by individual
homes, resorts, manufacturers, and small municipalities. Because they are
modular in nature, many individual units can be used conjunctively. The
largest plants are in the range of 40 000 m3/d made up of a
number of 2 000 m3/d individual units. Reverse osmosis plants
on small islands (UNESCO, 1991) include a 20 000 m3/d plant in
Malta for seawater desalination, commissioned in 1983 as the largest
seawater RO plant in the world (World Water, 1984), which, in 1986,
produced about 30% of the island's total water supply (Spiteri Staines,
1989); a 30 000 m3/d plant on Gran Canaria (World Water,
1986b; see also Part C, Case Studies) which supplements the water supply
of the capital, Las Palmas, and a 7 500 m3/d plant (with an
ultimate capacity of 30 000 m3/d) which serves a tourist
complex on the island; a 1 700 m3/d plant in Bermuda for
brackish water desalination; and, many smaller RO plants installed on the
Cape Verde Islands, Cayman Islands, and a number of small islands of
Japan, with typical plant capacities of 10 to 500 m3/d.
Solar desalination is not used extensively in the world and remains
largely experimental. There are no large-scale installations, generally
because of the large solar collection area requirements; high capital
cost; vulnerability to weather-related damage; and, complexity of
operation. An inventory of known wind- and solar-powered desalting plants
(Wangnick, 1990) listed about 100 plants scattered over 25 countries. Most
of these installations had capacities of less than 20 m3/d.
However, this inventory did not account for the many small solar stills
used by individual families in many parts of the world.
Operation and Maintenance
MSF and MED units are large and complex, and due to the particular
economies of scale for MSF and MED, tend to come in units of 20 000 and 5
000 m3/day, respectively, when combined with a steam-operated
electrical generating plants. These industrial sized units require
competent operators, mechanics, electricians, etc. The VC units, which are
much smaller, can be run by one or two persons. For all three types of
distillation plants, it is necessary to have a ready supply of spare parts
and chemicals (to prevent scaling), and reliable instrumentation. The
larger part of the MSF and MED plants are usually completed at the factory
where they are produced due to the need for specialized factory equipment
and metallurgical controls in their manufacture. For this reason, and due
to their large size and mass, MSF and MED plants are usually installed
near the shore so that the units, built in factories in France, Israel,
Italy, Japan, Korea, the UK or the USA, can be barged to the site and then
moved only a short distance to their foundations within the facility. At
that time the remaining pipes, pumps, control wiring, and other parts are
installed to make it operational. Likewise, VC units are almost always
completed in the factory and shipped to the site. They are smaller, and,
with proper handling equipment, can be readily unloaded from a ship or
plane and moved to the selected site. These units tend to be unforgiving
in their operation, and, if mistakes are made, can be costly to repair.
However, one of the important features of thermal plants is that they are
not as sensitive to the quality of the feedwater as membrane plants, and
can operate with raw water obtained directly from the sea.
Electrodialysis units are relatively easy to operate. However, they do
require that the operator has a knowledge of electricity, pumps, and
plumbing, and be able to repair the instrumentation. The feedwater for an
electrodialysis plant is usually taken from a groundwater source using a
well, which limits the amount of particulates and microorganisms in the
feedwater and reduces the need for maintenance. Electrodialysis units also
require a reliable source of electricity, and this is the most significant
component of their operational costs in addition to the chemicals needed
for pretreatment of the raw water.
Since Reverse Osmosis (RO) units come in smaller sizes than the other
types of desalination equipment, they are easier to install. The membranes
can be shipped separately ,making the pieces easier to move to a site. The
heaviest portions of the RO units are generally the high pressure pumps.
Although operation of the units is relatively easy, the operator must have
a knowledge of electricity, pumps, plumbing, and instrumentation, and be
able to mix the chemicals needed for pretreatment of the raw water.
Pretreatment of the feedwater prior to it reaching the membranes is the
critical operational element: the suspended solids content of the raw
water (including colloids, potential scaling constituents and
microorganisms) must be reduced to avoid fouling the membranes. While
membranes can be cleaned by the use of special chemicals, the membrane
units cannot be disassembled for cleaning, and, if a membrane is clogged
due to misuse, it is usually irreparable and must be replaced. RO units
require a reliable source of electricity which is the most significant
component of their operational costs. The membranes, which are usually a
third of the cost of the units, must be replaced every 3 to 5 years under
normal operation (or considerably more frequently if poorly operated).
Simple solar stills which work by humidification can be operated and
maintained by people without extensive technical skills. However, such
stills require constant maintenance if they are to efficiently produce
freshwater. The ponds must be kept filled with feedwater, to prevent scale
formation caused by the basins drying out, and the glass and collection
troughs kept clean and in good repair, to minimise vapour leaks caused by
broken glass panes. In contrast to these simple stills, hybrid units,
employing solar collectors to raise the temperature to achieve true
boiling, tend to be complex and their operation needs specially-trained
technicians. Units using photovoltaics are probably midway between the
other two in effort and complexity, and specialized assistance required.
All units are likely to require some imported materials. For example, even
simple stills require glass and sealer that may have to be imported; the
extent to which weather (wind, blowing sand, etc), wandering animals, and
birds can affect the quality of the glass needed for the solar stills
should not be underestimated. This is especially critical on islands which
are subjected to high winds, hurricanes, etc.
Level of Involvement
The use of MSF and MED distillation units needs to have the full
commitment of the community as they are large and will require
considerable funds to purchase and operate. A VC unit, being smaller,
requires less community commitment but will require that the owner be
financially solvent to provide the necessary funds to maintain and operate
The level of involvement required for an electrodialysis unit is
dependent on the capacity of the facility installed. A large facility with
a capacity of 20 000 to 40 000 m3/d would be considered a
major industrial installation requiring community acceptance and
financing. Smaller units, in the 10 m3/d capacity range, could
be installed and maintained by a large family or small business.
The level of involvement of the community in the operation and
maintenance of a reverse osmosis unit is dependent on the capacity of the
facility installed. A large facility would have a capacity of about 20 000
m3/d and would be a major industrial installation requiring
community acceptance and financing. However units in the 10 m3/d
capacity could be installed and maintained by a large family or small
The level of involvement of the community in the use of solar
distillation units depends on the type and size of the units. They all
require effort to maintain and operate, and some organization of the
effort and ability to collect moneys for future repairs and maintenance
(system administration) is also required. Due to the complexities and
responsibilities inherent in the use of solar desalination technologies,
there should be a real local understanding and commitment to this type of
installation before proceeding.
The capital cost of the MSF and MED distillation units tends to be in
the range of $1 000 to $2 000/m3/d of installed capacity,
exclusive of the steam supply and site preparation. If the units are built
as part of a dual purpose, electricity and water production facility, then
the cost of the electricity and steam plants must be added to that of the
distillation plant (however, the potential income from these ancillary
operations should also be included in the costing). The capital cost for
VC units tends to be around $2 500 to $3 000/m3/d of installed
capacity. These units require less site preparation. In general,
production costs tend to be in the range of $1 to $4/m3/d of
water produced, depending on the size of the unit. Both the capital and
operating costs are very site-dependent.
The 1995 capital cost of electrodialysis units tends to range from $250
to $750/m3/d of installed capacity, exclusive of the site
preparation, buildings (it usually requires one), and development of the
raw water supply. Production costs, including depreciation, tend to be in
the range $0.25 to $1/m3/d of water produced depending on the
size. Both the capital and operating costs are very site-dependent.
The capital cost of brackish water reverse osmosis units ranges from
$250 to $750/m3/d of installed capacity, exclusive of the site
preparation, utilities, buildings (it usually requires one), and
development of the raw water supply. The capital cost of a seawater RO
unit could range from $800 to $1 250/m3/d of installed
capacity. Production costs for a brackish water plant, including
depreciation, range from $0.25 to $1/m3/d of water produced,
depending on the size. Both the capital and operating costs are site
dependent. Similarly, for a seawater plant, production costs could range
from $1 to $4/m3/d.
Since there is limited commercialization of solar units, the capital
cost and operating cost are not as well established as for the other
processes. For the hybrid plants (distillation and photovoltaic) it can be
assumed that the capital costs of the solar generating system will
significantly exceed that of the desalination unit. The economics of
operating photovoltaic, solar desalting units tend to be related to the
cost of producing energy with these alternative energy devices. At this
time, the cost tends to be high, but may be expected to decline as the
further development of photovoltaic devices reduces their capital cost.
The capital cost of an 80 m3/d solar-assisted MED facility
installed at Umm Al Nar in Abu Dhabi has recently been estimated at about
$2 million, or about $25 000/m3/d of installed capacity
(El-Nashar and Samad, 1995). In partial contrast, solar stills are
expensive to construct correctly, and, although the thermal energy used in
the distillation process may be free, additional energy is usually needed
to pump the water to and from the facility.
Effectiveness of the Technology
The effectiveness and efficiency of distillation units is
generally measured by the amount of water produced per unit of steam
delivered to the plant. The higher the efficiency, the smaller the plant
tends to be. This is related to the top temperature at which the plant is
run as well as to the type of heat transfer surfaces used.
Higher-efficiency plants tend to have an higher risk of scaling and
require more care in operation.
The effectiveness and efficiency of electrodialysis units is generally
measured by the amount of water produced per kilowatt hour (kWh) of
electricity used. Usually more than one membrane stack in series is
required to achieve adequate reduction of the dissolved salts. Each stack
reduces the TDS by about half. Thus a properly designed 4-stack array
could reduce a feedwater of 4 000 mg/l total dissolved solids content to
about 250 mg/l.
The effectiveness and efficiency of reverse osmosis units is generally
measured by the amount of water produced per unit of steam delivered to
the plant. Typically 9.7 kWh/m3 of electric power is consumed in a 30%
recovery. If an energy recovery turbine of 80% efficiency is used, the
energy requirement will fall to 6.5 KWH/m3.
Although solar desalination technology has been in existence for a long
time, it is difficult to find successful, long-term applications. The
technology can work, especially the simple solar stills, but it must be
carefully matched to the application. A general rule of thumb for solar
stills is that a solar collection area of about one square metre is needed
to produce 4 litres of water per day. Thus a facility with a solar
collection area of one hectare should produce about 40 m3/d.
Distillation or thermal desalination is suited to any climate. MSF and
MED plants are cost-effective methods for producing large amounts of water
when they are used as part of a dual-purpose (water-electricity)
production facility. They are more thermally-efficient with a source of
cooler water to provide a wider temperature differential between the hot
end (brine heater) of the plant and the heat rejection section (coldest
part maintained by circulating cooling water). It is necessary for any
thermal installation, especially the MSF and MED units, to have trained
staff and access to foreign exchange for parts and chemicals. It is
important to remember that thermal plants will have a significant
discharge of heated water from the plant that must be disposed of.
The electrodialysis process also can be used in any climate, although it
can be damaged if the lines or membrane stacks are frozen. It also works
better in warmer weather as the efficiency of electrodialysis process
increases as the temperature of the feedwater increases. Electrodialysis
is best suited for feedwater with a TDS of 4 000 mg/l or less, and in
situations where feedwater are high in silica (which tend to create
problems with reverse osmosis plants). It is also suited for very complex
brackish feedwater where the TDS exceeds 10 000 mg/l, but is not
economically viable for seawater desalination.
Reverse osmosis is suitable for desalting brackish or sea water. It can
be used in any climate, although the membranes can be ruined if water is
frozen in them. Also, the process works more efficiently with warmer
feedwater, but the membrane units begin to have mechanical stability
problems if the feedwater temperature exceeds 35°C.
At present, the use of conventional energy sources to operate desalting
devices is generally more cost-effective than using solar and wind-driven
devices, although appropri-ate applications for solar and wind-driven
desalters do exist.
Distillation is a proven technology and has been used in many parts of
the world to provide a good quality product water. Distillation is
generally more tolerant of poor quality feedwater than other desalting
The electrodialysis process has the advantage of being simple to use,
and, since the product water does not go through the membrane and the
passages through the membrane stack are larger, the process is less apt to
scale or be plugged with debris. This is a good technology to use when the
feedwater is likely to contain an high concentration of suspended solids.
The process requires little chemical pretreatment of the source water, and
is quiet compared to thermal and reverse osmosis units. Electrodialysis
has the capability of achieving high recovery volumes (more product and
less brine), with the amount of energy used being proportional to the mass
of salts removed. It is also not affected by non-ionic substances such as
silica. Reverse osmosis also has a very simple design: the plants can be
broken into small pieces for shipment which make them ideal for use as
emergency water supplies. There are also many manufacturers of reverse
osmosis equipment components, which tends to keep the prices in balance.
Energy usage is not as sensitive to the proportion of the salts removed as
ED, and RO units will remove both ionic and non-ionic substances. Energy
can be recovered from the pressurized waste stream.
Solar desalination technologies can significantly reduce energy costs.
The long-term success of distillation units is directly related to the
use of appropriate and high-quality construction materials. These, in
turn, increase the capital costs of the plants. Balancing the capital cost
against the long-term performance of the unit requires care in
specification of the type of equipment to be supplied. High capital costs
can lead to high production costs. The MSF and MED processes generally are
cumbersome to ship and install.
Electrodialysis units are supplied by only one significant manufacturer.
Thus, there is a lack of significant competition (unlike the manufacture
of reverse osmosis units by numerous companies, which generally keeps the
prices of those units in check) to moderate the capital cost of ED units.
For optimal operation, the units require a reliable source of electricity,
which may not be available on islands. The process will only remove ions
or charged particulates from the source water, and problems with clogging
have been experienced when the raw water contains high levels of bacteria.
Since the removal efficiency of the plant is a design feature determined
by the number of stages in the ED plant, the use of ED with a feedwater of
variable or increasing TDS may create problems that can be more readily
handled with a reverse osmosis unit.
Reverse osmosis membranes are very sensitive to suspended solids,
including colloids, in the feedwater, and good pretreatment is very
important for maintaining the life of the membranes. Skilled operators and
a ready source of chemicals and spare parts are essential.
Solar desalination has high capital costs and the operation of solar
systems can be complex. In addition, a major production facility would
take up a large land area, which could create problems if the facility was
located on an island where land was scarce and/or expensive.
Desalination plants should only be installed after the capacity of the
community to finance, operate and maintain the units is established. In
the case of solar desalination, land ownership issues could become a
Further Development of the Technology
There probably will not be major significant technical improvements in
distillation processes, but a continual and gradual improvement in the use
of more suitable materials for construction, the use of scale control
chemicals, and operational experience.
Electrodialysis is a mature technology with efforts being concentrated
on producing components which are more effective and last longer.
There is continuing work in developing better reverse osmosis membranes
that work at lower pressures or are more selective in their removal
Solar desalination should benefit from the development of a process
called membrane distillation for direct or solar-assisted desalination.
This involves using a membrane which allows water vapour to pass through
but retains water in its liquid form. Further development of this and
other technological advances should help to make solar devices more cost
Anon. 1982. Desalter Systems for Man-made Islands. World Water,
Anon. 1985. Island's Solar Stills Progress. World Water,
Birkett, J.D. 1987. Factors Influencing the Economics of Desalination.
In: Non-Conventional Water Resources Use in Developing Countries.
United Nations Natural Resources/Water Series No. 22, 87-102.
Brewster, M.R. and O.K. Buros 1985a. Non-conventional Water Resources:
Economics and Experiences in Developing Countries (I). Natural
Resources Forum, 9(1):65-75.
Brewster, M.R. and O.K. Buros 1985b. Non-conventional Water Resources:
Economics and Experiences in Developing Countries (Ii). Natural
Resources Forum, 9(2):133-142.
Buros, O.K. 1987. An Introduction to Desalination. In:
Non-conventional Water Resources Use in Developing Countries, United
Nations Natural Resources/Water Series No. 22, 37-53.
Buros, O.K. 1989. The Relevance of Non-conventional Water Resource
Technologies in Island Environments. In: Proceedings of the
Interregional Seminar on Water Resources Management Techniques for Small
Island Countries. UNDTCD Report No. ISWSI/SEM/24, United Nations
Development Programme, Suva.
Buros, O.K. , R.B. Cox, I. Nusbaum, A.M. El-Nashar, and R. Bakish 1981.
The USAID Desalination Manual : A Planning Tool for Those Considering
the Use of Desalination to Assist in the Development of Water Resources.
International Desalination and Environmental Association, Teaneck, New
Camilleri, F. 1979. How to Tackle Water Problems in Connection with
Countries Similar to Malta with Small Surface Area and Little Rainfall.
In: Proceedings of the Seminar on Selected Water Problems in Islands
and Coastal Areas with Special Regard to Desalination and Groundwater,
Pergamon Press, New York. pp. 335-340.
Cant, R.V. 1980a. Summary of Comments on R.A. Tidball's "Lake
Killarney Reverse Osmosis Plant". In: P. Hadwen (Ed.), Proceedings
of the United Nations Seminar on Small Island Water Problems, United
Nations Development Programme, New York. pp. 552-554.
Chan, P.K. and K.W. Chan 1989. Water Resources Development in Hong Kong.
In: Proceedings of the Seminar on Water Management in Small Island
States. Commonwealth Engineers Council, London. pp. 25-37.
Crerar, A.J., R.E. Low, and C.L. Pritchard 1987. Wave Powered
Desalination. Desalination, 67:127-137.
Dabbagh, T.A. and A. Al-Saqabi 1989. The Increasing Demand for
Desalination. Desalination, 73:3-26.
Delyannis, E.E. 1987. Status of Solar Assisted Desalination: A Review.
Delyannis, E.E. and A. Delyannis 1985. Economics of Solar Stills. Desalination,
Dunham, D.C. 1978. Fresh Water from the Sun. US Agency for
International Development, Washington.
Eibling, J.A., S.G. Talbert, and G.O.G. Lof 1971. Solar Stills for
Community Use - Digest of Technology. Solar Energy, 13:263-276.
El-Nashar, A. and M. Samad 1995. A Solar-assisted Sea Water Multiple
Effect Distillation Plant - 10 Years of Operating Performance. In: The
Proceedings of the IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Sciences,
International Desalination Association, Abu Dhabi.
ESCAP [Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific] 1981.
Proceedings of the Symposium on Solar Science and Technology, Volumes
1 and 2. United Nations Regional Centre for Technology Transfer,
Bangkok. 311 pp. and viii + 545 pp.
Gomkale, S.D. and R.L. Datta 1973. Some Aspects of Solar Distillation
for Water Purification. Desalination, 14:387-392.
Goto, T., K. Kikuchi, and M. Hirai 1989. Seawater Desalination. In:
Proceedings of the Interregional Seminar on Water Resources Management
Techniques for Small Island Countries. United Nations Department of
Technical Cooperation and Development, United Nations Development
Programme, Suva. 10 pp.
Frederick, K.D. 1993. Balancing Water Demands with Supplies: The
Role of Management in a World of Increasing Scarcity. Technical Paper
No. 189, The World Bank, Washington.
Hall, W.A. 1980. Desalination: Solution or New Problem for Island Water
Supplies. Discussion. In: P. Hadwen (Ed.), Proceedings of the
United Nations Seminar on Small Island Water Problems, United Nations
Development Programme, New York. pp. 542-543.
Hicks, D.C., C.M. Pleass, G.R. Mitcheson, and J.F. Salevan 1989.
Delbuoy: Ocean Wave-powered Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination System.
Hori, J. 1984. Desalination Plants with a Capacity of More than 95 m3/d
Installed by Japanese Manufacturers. Desalination, 52:87-93.
IDA [International Desalination Association] 1988. Worldwide
Inventory of Desalination Plants. International Desalination
Association, Topsfield, Massachusetts.
Lawand, T.A. 1975. Systems for Solar Distillation. Brace
Research Institute Report No. R.115, Brace Research Institute, Quebec.
Lawand, T.A. 1987. Desalination With Renewable Energy Sources. In:
Non-conventional Water Resources Use in Developing Countries. United
Nations Natural Resources/Water Series No. 22, 66-86.
Leitner, G.F. 1989. Costs of Seawater Desalination in Real Terms, 1979
Through 1989, and Projections for 1999. Desalination, 76:201-213.
Lucas, M. 1987. Recent Developments in Vapour Compression Desalination.
In: Non-Conventional Water Resources Use in Developing Countries,
United Nations Natural Resources/Water Series No. 22, 54-59.
Manson, J. 1993. Caribbean Cogeneration: Optimizing and Planning of
Seawater Desalination for Caribbean Islands Will Help Keep Costs to a
Minimum. Water & Environment International, 2(22):14-16, 18,
Matz, R. and Z. Zimerman 1985. Low Temperature Vapour Compression and
Multi-effect Distillation of Seawater: Effects of Design on Operation and
Economics. Desalination, 52:201-216.
McBride, R., R. Morris, and W. Hanbury 1987. Wind Power, A Reliable
Source for Desalination. Desalination, 67:559-564.
Ophir, A. and S. Manor 1987. The Curacao Kae-lt-med and Auxiliary Steam
Turbine Project: A Model for Dual Purpose MSF Plants Replacement. Desalination,
OTA [Office of Technology Assessment] 1988. Using Desalination
Technologies for Water Treatment. Office of Technology Assessment, US
Passino, R. 1979. Introductory Report (Desalination: Technological
Progress). In: Proceedings of the Seminar on Selected Water Problems
in Islands and Coastal Areas with Special Regard to Desalination and
Groundwater, Pergamon Press, New York. pp. 345-347.
Peplow, G. 1987. Descaling Properties of Seawater Reverse Osmosis
Product Water. In: Proceedings of the XXI Congress of the
International Association of Hydrogeologists, International
Association of Hydrogeologists, Rome.
Pleass, C.M. 1981. Seawave Powered Desalination: a Review Including
Performance Data from the Delbuoy Prototype. College of Marine Studies
Report, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware
Porteous, A. (Ed.) 1983. Desalination Technology: Development and
Practice. Applied Science Publishers, New York.
Silver, S. 1987. Aspects of Process Selection for Desalination. In:
Non-Conventional Water Resources Use in Developing Countries, United
Nations Natural Resources/Water Series No. 22, 104-116.
Smith, M. and R. Shaw 1994. Desalination, Technical Brief No. 40. Waterlines,
Song, X.T. 1987. China: The Development and Use of Non-conventional
Water Resources. In: Non-Conventional Water Resources Use in
Developing Countries, United Nations Natural Resources/Water Series
Sousa, H.J.T. and V. Janisch 1987. Solar Desalination Based on the
Multi-cycle Concept. Desalination, 67:75-80.
Swinton, E.A. 1980. Desalination. Australian Water and
Wastewater Association Summer School, Adelaide.
Talbert, S.G., Y.A. Eibling, and G.O.G. Lof 1970. Manual on Solar
Distillation of Saline Water. OSW Research and Development Program
Report No. 546, US Department of the Interior, Washington.
Tiwari, G.N. 1985. Advanced Solar Distillation Systems. Kamala
Kuteer Publications, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Toelkes, W.E. 1987. The Ebeye Desalination Project - Total Utilization
of Diesel Waste Heat. Desalination, 66:59-68.
UNDTCD [United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation and
Development] 1985. The Use of Non-conventional Water Resources in
Developing Countries. United Nations Natural Resources/Water Series
No. 14, United Nations Development Programme Report No. ST/ESA/149, United
Nations, New York.
UNDTCD [United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation and
Development] 1989. Water Resources in Small Island Countries.
Interregional Seminar on Water Resources Management Techniques for Small
Island Countries Report No. ISWSI/SEM/1, United Nations Department of
Technical Cooperation for Development, Suva.
United Nations 1985. The Use of Non-conventional Water Resources in
Developing Countries. United Nations Natural Resources/Water Series
United Nations 1987. Non-conventional Water Resources Use in
Developing Countries. United Nations Natural Resources/Water Series
Wangnick, K. 1995. The Historic Development of the Desalination Market.
In: Proceedings of the IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water
Sciences, International Desalination Association, Abu Dhabi.
Walton, J.D. 1980. Solar Energy for Rural Development in the Asia and
Pacific Region. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Solar Science and
Technology, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and
the Pacific, Bangkok.
Wood, F.C. 1982. The Changing Face of Desalination - A Consulting
Engineer's Viewpoint. Desalination, 42:17-25.