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<Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augumentation in Africa>


For the purpose of developing this Source Book, Africa was divided into 5 regions, notably:

  • Southern Africa, comprising Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe

  • East Africa, comprising Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda

  • Anglophone West Africa, comprising The Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, and portions of Central Africa (i.e., parts of Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Zaire)

  • Francophone West Africa, comprising Burkina Faso, Cote de Ivoire, Guinea Conakry, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, Mauritania, Togo and portions of Central Africa (i.e., parts of Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Zaire)

  • North Africa, comprising Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia

Four institutions carried out the study in their respective regions: the Centre Regional pour l'Eau Potable et l'Assainissement a Faible Cout (CREPA), based in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, was responsible for Francophone West Africa and North Africa; the Network for Water and Sanitation International (NETWAS), based in Nairobi, Kenya, was responsible for East Africa; the Training, Research and Network for Development (TREND) Group, based in Kumasi, Ghana, was responsible for Anglophone West Africa; and, the Institute of Water and Sanitation Development, based in Harare, Zimbabwe, was responsible Southern Africa. These four institutions comprise part of the International Training Network for Water and Waste Management (ITN), a UNDP-World Bank initiated programme for capacity building in the water supply and sanitation sectors. The institutional members of the ITN operate independently, but meet annually to share experiences from their respective regions.

The Institute of Water and Sanitation Development coordinated the project, prepared the final report, and compiled the literature review. The final report was based upon regional reports prepared by the participating institutions. Each institution recruited consultants from their respective regions to assist with data collection and regional report compilation.

A workshop was convened by the Institute to discuss the results of the literature search and field survey. This workshop was attended by experts from throughout Africa and a representative from UNEP.


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