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9.6 Policy and institutional framework (Topic f)

In the Caribbean Region, the construction/installation of water supply, sewerage facilities and stormwater facilities must be approved by each particular government, as with housing estates, commercial, industrial and agricultural facilities and other infrastructure. The local governments monitor a number of functions in their respective areas and boundaries. This can include the appointment of the number of working personnel, also the monitoring of the quality of facilities and the drafting of actions which must be undertaken by the government.

As outlined in the CEP Technical Report No. 33, most of the countries of the WCR have adopted legal instruments to control the various aspects of domestic and industrial wastewater disposal into the coastal marine environment. Of the 25 countries that undertook the Land Based Sources of Pollution (LBSP) inventory, only nine countries provided relevant documents on legislation on land-based sources of marine pollution. Document UNEP(OCA)/CAR WG.13/INF.12 is a compilation of information on national legislation related to land-based source of marine pollution from the countries of the WCR countries.

The degree to which these legal instruments are applied varies from country to country, and in many cases, the legislation is not enforced. The enforcement of the regulations of these legislation is also hampered by the lack of the necessary infrastructure. Moreover, these regulations tend to be dispersed in general environmental legislation such as fisheries, navigation, etc. There is little doubt that the enforcement of the above regulations may at times conflict with other local interests such as the rapid development and diversification of new industries and resort complexes, particularly in those countries with economies in transition.

Consequently, it is very clear that for many countries of the WCR to meet the obligations of the LBSP Protocol in the future, it will be necessary to seriously consider appropriate strategies to cope with increasing pollution loads affecting their coastal areas.

These strategies will depend mainly on economic factors but also on the political commitment of the different countries of the region to protect the coastal environment" (CEP 1994).


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