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<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>

8.2 Collection and transfer (Topic b)

Approximately 6.1 million people live in the Pacific SIDS of which 3.7 million people (or about 60%) live in Papua New Guinea alone. Of the total population approximately 694,200 (or 11%) are serviced by a reticulated wastewater system. If PNG was excluded from the calculation then approximately 546,000 people out of 2.4 million (or 23%) have access to reticulated wastewater systems. Note that of those people serviced by collection systems (694,200), wastewater from over 100,000 people is discharges direct into the coastal environment without treatment. Also many of the existing treatment plants do not preform as designed. Table 8.3 shows SIDS populations, the number of people served by wastewater reticulation systems and where the effluence is discharged.

The balance (or majority) of the people would dispose their waste through septic tanks, various types of latrines and over water latrines. In some SIDS composting toilets have been introduced as an alternative method of disposal. The bush and beach are still used for defecation, especially by children, in many countries.

It appears that combined wastewater and stormwater collection sewers are not used in the Region. However as mentioned in Section 8.1.3, stormwater does find its way into wastewater systems during periods of rainfall.

There are all types and sizes of pipes used in the Region to reticulate wastewater. Generally it is current practice in the Region to use plastic pipes, however other pipe materials that best suit the situation are used.

In Kiribati, Marshall Islands and Nauru, seawater is used to flush toilets and convey sewage to discharge outfalls. Seawater, used to conserve limited freshwater resources, is pumped to household toilet tanks and collected again for disposal in separate reticulation systems or to septic tanks.

Table 8.3: Estimate of Regional Population and Population Sewered

Country
 
Population
 
Population Sewered Outfall Discharge
American Samoa 35,000 15,500 Ocean
Cook Islands 18,000 None None
Kosrae, FSM 7,700 1,000 Ocean
Pohnpei, FSM 35,200 14,100* Ocean
Chuuk, FSM 52,000 9,000* Ocean
Yap, FSM 11,300 1,100 Ocean
Palau 15,000 5,500 Ocean
Fiji 760,000 110,000 Ocean/River
French Polynesia 196,000 ND ND
Guam 139,000 151,000*** Ocean
Kiribati 72,000 20,000* Ocean
Nauru 8,500 3,000* Ocean
New Caledonia 165,000 92,700 Ocean
Niue 2,500 None None
Mariana Islands 59,000 39,000 Ocean
Papua New Guinea 3,700,000 138,300** Ocean/River
Rep. Of Marshall Islands 46,200 28,500* Ocean
Solomon Islands 333,000 25,000* Ocean/River
Tokelau 1,200 None None
Tonga 100,000 None None
Tuvalu 9,000 None None
Vanuatu 160,000 None None
Western Samoa 165,000 None None
TOTAL 6,105,600 694,200  
Note: * = Sewered but not treated     **=some not treated ***=includes military population
ND = No Data

 

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