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United Nations Environment Programme
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Newsletter and Technical Publications
<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>

3.7 Training (Topic g)

In the industrialised countries of the region, education levels of workers and management staff for wastewater are generally high. Schemes for training and human resource development at both national and local level are well founded and organised. Operators of the sewage and drainage system facilities are required to attend courses and pass certification examinations for promotion or to hold jobs. In addition to hands-on training on technology used in wastewater, staff at management level are often sent for further education. There are also regular promotional campaigns organised by government and NGOs to promote environmental protection.

In the developing countries, the various educational institutions have been offering courses in water supply and wastewater treatment design and operation for Engineers. Although there is training provided, these activities are severely limited by a lack of resources. There are inadequate funds for promotional campaigns and training by government and NGOs.

There are many activities related to training and human resources development that developing countries can experiment with. For example the National Strategy and Action Plan for Sanitation in the Philippines have been applied for a project in Metro Manila:

  • Strengthen the ability of the planning and development coordination office staff in each target local government to develop community sewerage and sanitation plans.

  • Conduct workshops for planning and engineering staff so that they understand the technical and financial options and "tradeoffs" that are part of any sanitation plan.

  • Develop an institutional improvement plan for each target local government that identifies structures and staff skills needed to manage program functions.

  • Assist each local government unit to establish a Program Management Unit (PMU) to carry out sanitation and sewerage program management functions.

  • Liaise with human resources development task coordinators to institutionalize a long-term training and skills development mechanism to meet the future needs of the program.

Future action can be guided by the Asian Development Bank (ADBs) technical assistance and lending operations in its Developing Member Countries (DMC) for strengthening local government commitment to, and financing capacity for, urban environmental improvement. These actions include but are not limited to the following:

  • Initiating policy dialogues with DMC as part of technical assistance lending operations;

  • According priority urban water supply development and domestic wastewater, industrial waste management, including hazardous and toxic wastes;

  • Stimulation demand for investment through institutional strengthening and pilot project that demonstrate the positive impacts of improved urban environment;

  • Encouraging private sector participation, by assisting DMC in creating an environment conducive to investment;

  • Enhancing the environmental benefits of other related urban sectors;

  • Promoting regional co-operation and sharing of experience among ADB's DMC and;

  • Increasing resource mobilisation to enhance financial and economic attractiveness of urban environmental improvement projects.

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