Newsletter and Technical Publications
<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>
3.7 Training (Topic g)
In the industrialised countries of the region, education levels
of workers and management staff for wastewater are generally high. Schemes for
training and human resource development at both national and local level are
well founded and organised. Operators of the sewage and drainage system
facilities are required to attend courses and pass certification examinations
for promotion or to hold jobs. In addition to hands-on training on technology
used in wastewater, staff at management level are often sent for further
education. There are also regular promotional campaigns organised by government
and NGOs to promote environmental protection.
In the developing countries, the various educational
institutions have been offering courses in water supply and wastewater treatment
design and operation for Engineers. Although there is training provided, these
activities are severely limited by a lack of resources. There are inadequate
funds for promotional campaigns and training by government and NGOs.
There are many activities related to training and human
resources development that developing countries can experiment with. For example
the National Strategy and Action Plan for Sanitation in the Philippines have
been applied for a project in Metro Manila:
Strengthen the ability of the planning and development
coordination office staff in each target local government to develop
community sewerage and sanitation plans.
Conduct workshops for planning and engineering staff so that
they understand the technical and financial options and
"tradeoffs" that are part of any sanitation plan.
Develop an institutional improvement plan for each target
local government that identifies structures and staff skills needed to
manage program functions.
Assist each local government unit to establish a Program
Management Unit (PMU) to carry out sanitation and sewerage program
Liaise with human resources development task coordinators to
institutionalize a long-term training and skills development mechanism to
meet the future needs of the program.
Future action can be guided by the Asian Development Bank (ADBs)
technical assistance and lending operations in its Developing Member Countries
(DMC) for strengthening local government commitment to, and financing capacity
for, urban environmental improvement. These actions include but are not limited
to the following:
Initiating policy dialogues with DMC as part of technical
assistance lending operations;
According priority urban water supply development and
domestic wastewater, industrial waste management, including hazardous and
Stimulation demand for investment through institutional
strengthening and pilot project that demonstrate the positive impacts of
improved urban environment;
Encouraging private sector participation, by assisting DMC
in creating an environment conducive to investment;
Enhancing the environmental benefits of other related urban
Promoting regional co-operation and sharing of experience
among ADB's DMC and;
Increasing resource mobilisation to enhance financial and
economic attractiveness of urban environmental improvement projects.