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3.6.2 Institutional arrangement

The institutional arrangements in the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam are briefly described to illustrate the general and complex issues facing countries in this Region.

Philippine’s Institutional Framework

In the Philippines, the most critical management issue for Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewer System (MWSS) is "inefficiency of organization and operation ". There are two fundamental causes for the inefficiency of the MWSS organization and operations. One is the monopoly of MWSS operations and the other is government regulations. In order to improve the overall efficiency of MWSS, the organization must be a transformed into a more responsive and accountable organization for consumers and other stakeholders through reform measures at various levels.

While many local government agencies have competent personnel and generic planning and management systems, they lack the experience necessary to carry out the statutory mandate of the Local Government Code; and to achieve the overall strategic objective of providing and managing sanitation and sewerage services without substantial support and direction by the National Government.

The multiple functions to be performed at the national level, even though actual service provision takes place at the local level, cut across the interests and jurisdictions of several existing agencies, whose continued interest in and promotion of the program are vital to its success. To provide the necessary energy, impetus, national-level coordination, and guidance and support of local activities, it is essential that a small unit be established in a national agency to manage the program. It is proposed that this unit be called the Central Sanitation and Sewerage Program Support Office (CPSO). It is further recommended that an interdepartmental advisory committee be formed to assist the CPSO in its efforts to coordinate the work of the national agencies that share responsibility for the support and approval of program activities.

Thailand’s institutional framework

The current institutional framework for water pollution control is complicated as shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Thailand's Institutional framework for water pollution control

Vietnam’s institutional framework

Generally in Vietnam the sanitary drainage system is operated and maintained by public sanitation companies, although there are also a number of small road drainage channels owned and operated by the Transportation Department.

Current Institutional Framework in Halong

The upper strategy of the local government is composed of the Hai Phong People’s Committee (HPPC), the elected People’s Council and a number of departments and services that report both to the central government and HPPC. From the urban environmental investment point of view, the most important departments are the Department of Planning and Investment (DPI) reporting to the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI), which is the pivotal central government organisation controlling investments, and the Department of Investment and Development (DID) reporting to the Ministry of Finance. The department controls the flow of funds to investment projects and disbursement of funds borrowed from international development agencies, through the banking system, e.g. the bank of investment and development.

The Quang Ninh Transport and Urban Public Works Service (TUWS) is the umbrella organisation of some 26 public companies, which are divided in two main groups: state companies, which are autonomous and self-sustained, and public enterprises, i.e. companies not able to generate revenues enough to cover their costs and thus dependent on subsidies. In the former group TUWS acts as a monitoring agency only, but in the latter group TUWS is the channel of subsidy funds

Besides TUWS a number of HPPC’s service and departments are also involved in reviewing and approving plans and proposals of sanitation sector organisations, such as:

  • The construction service, which is the principal organisation in the construction sector, e.g. controlling a number of contracting and consulting companies. The Construction Service approves designs for construction works in investment projects.

  • The Planning Institute is in charge of long and short term strategic planning and physical planning of the city. The Institute is responsible for the preparation of the Sewerage and Drainage Master Plan.

  • The Department of Science, Technology and Environment is responsible for setting technical standards, promotion of new environmentally friendly technologies for production and for monitoring of compliance with environmental regulations.

  • The Foreign Relations Office assists all projects receiving foreign support by arranging necessary clearances and simplifying procedures.

  • The Quang Ninh Hygiene and Epidemiology Institute monitor the quality of water in rivers and lakes from a public health point of view.

Haiphong Urban Environment Company ( URENCo)

URENCo, Previously Haiphong Sanitation Company, primarily concentrated on solid waste and wastewater management of the city.

The current organization of URENCo is seen in Figure 3.2. The organization consists mostly of Environmental Teams concerned with sewerage and drainage issues

Figure 3.2: The current organization of  URENCo

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