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<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
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3.6.2 Institutional arrangement
The institutional arrangements in the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam are
briefly described to illustrate the general and complex issues facing countries
in this Region.
Philippine’s Institutional Framework
In the Philippines, the most critical management issue for Metropolitan
Waterworks and Sewer System (MWSS) is "inefficiency of organization and
operation ". There are two fundamental causes for the inefficiency of the
MWSS organization and operations. One is the monopoly of MWSS operations and the
other is government regulations. In order to improve the overall efficiency of
MWSS, the organization must be a transformed into a more responsive and
accountable organization for consumers and other stakeholders through reform
measures at various levels.
While many local government agencies have competent personnel and generic
planning and management systems, they lack the experience necessary to carry out
the statutory mandate of the Local Government Code; and to achieve the overall
strategic objective of providing and managing sanitation and sewerage services
without substantial support and direction by the National Government.
The multiple functions to be performed at the national level, even though
actual service provision takes place at the local level, cut across the
interests and jurisdictions of several existing agencies, whose continued
interest in and promotion of the program are vital to its success. To provide
the necessary energy, impetus, national-level coordination, and guidance and
support of local activities, it is essential that a small unit be established in
a national agency to manage the program. It is proposed that this unit be called
the Central Sanitation and Sewerage Program Support Office (CPSO). It is further
recommended that an interdepartmental advisory committee be formed to assist the
CPSO in its efforts to coordinate the work of the national agencies that share
responsibility for the support and approval of program activities.
Thailand’s institutional framework
The current institutional framework for water pollution control is
complicated as shown in Figure 3.1.
Figure 3.1: Thailand's Institutional framework for water pollution control
Vietnam’s institutional framework
Generally in Vietnam the sanitary drainage system is operated
and maintained by public sanitation companies, although there are also a number
of small road drainage channels owned and operated by the Transportation
Current Institutional Framework in Halong
The upper strategy of the local government is composed of the
Hai Phong People’s Committee (HPPC), the elected People’s Council and a
number of departments and services that report both to the central government
and HPPC. From the urban environmental investment point of view, the most
important departments are the Department of Planning and Investment (DPI)
reporting to the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI), which is the pivotal
central government organisation controlling investments, and the Department of
Investment and Development (DID) reporting to the Ministry of Finance. The
department controls the flow of funds to investment projects and disbursement of
funds borrowed from international development agencies, through the banking
system, e.g. the bank of investment and development.
The Quang Ninh Transport and Urban Public Works Service (TUWS)
is the umbrella organisation of some 26 public companies, which are divided in
two main groups: state companies, which are autonomous and self-sustained, and
public enterprises, i.e. companies not able to generate revenues enough to cover
their costs and thus dependent on subsidies. In the former group TUWS acts as a
monitoring agency only, but in the latter group TUWS is the channel of subsidy
Besides TUWS a number of HPPC’s service and departments are
also involved in reviewing and approving plans and proposals of sanitation
sector organisations, such as:
The construction service, which is the principal
organisation in the construction sector, e.g. controlling a number of
contracting and consulting companies. The Construction Service approves
designs for construction works in investment projects.
The Planning Institute is in charge of long and short term
strategic planning and physical planning of the city. The Institute is
responsible for the preparation of the Sewerage and Drainage Master Plan.
The Department of Science, Technology and Environment is
responsible for setting technical standards, promotion of new
environmentally friendly technologies for production and for monitoring of
compliance with environmental regulations.
The Foreign Relations Office assists all projects receiving
foreign support by arranging necessary clearances and simplifying
The Quang Ninh Hygiene and Epidemiology Institute monitor
the quality of water in rivers and lakes from a public health point of view.
Haiphong Urban Environment Company ( URENCo)
URENCo, Previously Haiphong Sanitation Company, primarily concentrated on solid
waste and wastewater management of the city.
The current organization of URENCo is seen in Figure 3.2. The organization
consists mostly of Environmental Teams concerned with sewerage and drainage
Figure 3.2: The current organization of URENCo