Newsletter and Technical Publications
<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>
3.3.3 Industrial wastewater
Like domestic wastewater, most of the industrial wastewater in developing
countries is not treated, even though most of these countries require that
industrial wastewater is treated before being discharged into the sewerage
For example in Vietnam there exists only one identified industrial wastewater
treatment plant in Vietnam, namely in Hanoi, for tannery wastewater. The plant
was financed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) for training
purposes, but it is reported by the managers of the factory that due to lack of
raw materials, the factory is not in operation at the moment.
The management of industrial wastes, both liquid and solid is generally the
responsibility of the respective industries, even more so when government
monitoring, control and enforcement of environmental regulations are lacking or
absent. The environmental and health impact of uncontrolled disposal of toxic
industrial waste is likely to be more serious and longer lasting than for
Also in Jakarta, industrial discharges are a growing concern. Groundwater is
polluted with nitrates and micro-organisms from domestic and toxic waste leached
from industrial landfills.
In developed countries, every industrial factory has private treatment
facilities. Industries that discharge wastewater to the wastewater system are
required to pre-treat their wastewater or provide their own treatment system.
A recent example of a pre-treatment system is the centralised industrial
wastewater treatment demonstration plant at Spearwood in Western Australia,
which processes the wastewater from a number of local industries and then
discharges it to the Water Corporation sewer. Previously, these industries
provided their own systems, including discharge into the ocean.