Newsletter and Technical Publications
<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwter Management>
The projection of financial resources was attempted on a premise that
national budget would increase almost in proportion to the Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) growth rate (10-12%/year) and accordingly the Hanoi development
expenditures would also increase. The projected figures are shown in Table 3.20
Table 3.20: Projection of Hanoi's development expenditures
|Hanoi Total Development Expenditures
|Allocation to Drainage/Sewerage Sector
|(Unit: US$ million equiv.)
The required fund for the implementation of the plans proposed in the Master
Plan, estimated in Table 3.19, is generally within the range of the budgetary
resources projected in the above table, though there may be some surplus or
shortage each year. Hence, the proposed implementation plan is deemed to be
Environmental impact assessment
Drainage and sewerage development, in particular the latter, aims at
improving living standards and water quality, and hence is regarded to be the
development which would improve the city's environment (Photo 3.3). The plans
formulated in the Master Plan are in general in line with this concept and will
not cause any particular environmental problems.
Photo 3.3: Kimnguu River under construction
Overall, the To Lich River Basin Drainage Project will
contribute to the improvement of the City's environmental conditions. Flood
inundation results in economic loss the people, and is also one of the main
factors aggravation hygienic conditions, which would be mitigated by the
Project. The improvement of river and lake facilities will result in the
improvement of people's living environment.
The Sewerage and Drainage Company (SDC) is the most
important agency responsible for the implementation and operation and
maintenance of the drainage and sewerage projects. Its functions shall be
strengthened by providing of sufficient O&M budget, reinforcing middle
to senior class engineers, and training technicians.
A new organization for the implementation of the To Lich
River Basin Drainage Project shall be established in order to discuss and
determine all collaborations required to lead the Project to a successful
completion, both for management and technical guidance.
Comprehensive environmental survey data have not been
accumulated at present. It is recommended that an "Environmental
Monitoring Program" be implemented separately from the projects.
It is presumed that more that half of the Study Area has
been subject to ground subsidence of 5-10mm/year. It is necessary to
continue the observation of ground subsidences following a well established
Lakes and ponds in the City area play a very important role
in drainage and sewerage. They should be conserved for the future.
Any works relevant to the West Lake should be preceded by a
comprehensive environmental study on the Lake, which should be commenced as
early as possible.
It is recommended that unused lands adjacent to the pumping
station and reservoir be reserved for the future expansion of the pumping
stations and regulation reservoirs.
Substantial improvement of rivers/lakes' water quality
cannot be attained unless wastewater treatment systems are introduced. A
feasibility study shall be conducted in order to accelerate the program's
The role of the Urban Environment Company (URENCO), which is
responsible for the collection and disposal of solid waste and excreta, is
particularly important. The reinforcement of this institution, together with
the provision of the necessary equipment and facilities, should be carried
out under a separate aid program.