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<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
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1.11 Case studies (Topic k)

1.11.1 Djiboutiís sewerage system

The sanitation situation in the city state of Djibouti is unique in Africa. It may not be a best practice example, but is a good one; the problem in showing it off being the incomparably small scale of its operation. There is no doubt, however that it demonstrates the principle and itís feasibility where population can be kept under control. The city of Djibouti which houses some 83% of the countryís population is served by 24.4 km of sewers. The system includes 12 lift stations (because of very flat land surface) and a sewage treatment plant based on the activated sludge process at Douda. The constraints of its wastewater management include near-zero altitude which limits discharge into the sea at low tides. Even this tiny country has problem of covering its high density, low income housing areas where water supply is also inadequate. The country relies on African Development Bank (ADB) to finance the sanitation master plan completed in 1988 (World Bank, 1991). The master plan consists of construction of 8.3 km of main collector, a lift station, expansion of the treatment plant, and rehabilitation of the existing network.

1.11.2 Ouagadougou: community based water sector development2

The population of Ouagadougou could reach 1.4 million by 2000. Ouagadougou consists of 30 sectors. A local Fund gathered loans to finance systems of barrels and carts set up to transport water from standing pipes to houses. More than 30 barrels and carts were distributed. This was an emergency measure to solve the problem of acute water shortage and of disposing of wastes in a sanitary manner. The National Office for Water Supply and Sanitation (ONEA) connected 14 schools to the city supply network. Parent-Teacherís Association is responsible for part of the costs.

In 1989 sociologists conducted a socio-sanitary survey. They interviewed families and completed questionnaires. They involved the public and their opinion with all phases of development, through health committees and sector committees, mayors, community, organization and those in charge of sub-sectors. The project was conceived and led by people of national standing.

Double ventilated pit latrines (DVIP) were installed in public areas (schools, and free health clinics) and incinerators were set up to handle solid wastes. The sanitary engineering service of the Education Directorate for Health and Sanitation ensures the technical supervision of the activities. The Project also trained local artisans to transfer technologies to the communities that request them. The measures were low-level activities, but were hope inspiring as it was community based.

2The contact person is Dr. S.R. Hien, Ministry of Health, Social Affairs and the Family of Burkina Faso, Directorate of Preventive Medicine, Ouagadougou.


1.11.3 Jiguiís Mobilisation and public education in Bamako, Mali3

Hamdallaye District of Bamako is an extended area with 40,000 persons (6,500 households) which had little sanitary infrastructure. A survey conducted by an economic interest group Jigui identified the existence of unauthorized garbage dumps and the discharge of waste water in the streets. Jigui worked towards developing a garbage-collection system, hygiene education, and involving the population in sanitary projects. It also initiated, supervised and executed activities with the people. District authorities and technical Services provided active assistance (such as final waste disposal) and technical advice (on cesspools and institutional arrangements). The French Development Bank finances aspects of the project dealing with waste, other aspects are funded by African Development Bank and Infrastructure Fund of the UN.

The two major areas of focus are:
(a) Operation 'Bseya' or "Cleanliness" - There is daily garbage collection for all concessions of the district that subscribe. Garbage is deposited in intermediate points (at CFA 750 per concession per month cost of service): garbage cans provided are emptied daily, into tipping donkeys carts.
(b) Sanitation - Jigui4 plannned installation of individual cesspits in the concessions to receive wastewater previously discharged into the street (World Bank 1996). Enthusiasm is propelled by debates in the concessions, weekly meetings, and by committees of elders.

3 The contact person is Essay Koudio, SODECI, avenue Christiani, Abidjan O/BP 1843 CI
Tel: 225-21 0623/212191.

4 The contact person is Moussa Kaba, President of the GIE Jigui, BP 1502 Bamako (Mali)
Tel.: 223-22-34-25; Fax: 223 23 1996.

1.11.4 DANIDAís Kenya Sewerage House Connection Project

Forty centres were identified by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA, 1989) in Kenya to qualify for water borne sewerage systems, and approximate 30 sewerage systems have since been constructed all over Kenya, at a cost of DDK 38.9 million (Ksh 51.2 m). The work was partly financed through foreign donor funds and partly through Government of Kenya (GOK) funds allocated to Ministry of Local government (MOLG) and Ministry of Water Development (MOWD). The main donors in the sewerage sector have been AFDF, KFW, NORDA & DANIDA (DANIDA, 1989).

Commissioned DANIDA projects:
Isiolo - June 1983 (13 % completion)
Busia - September 1983 (38% completion )
Homa Bay - July 1985 - 47% of total costs by DANIDA (33% completion)
Nyahururu - May 1986 - 53% by local loans from local governments, etc. (99% completion)

House connections phase was entered into in 1986 to increase the number of beneficiaries from the sewerage schemes in the 4 towns from 18,900 (April 1985) to 43,800 (end of project) at DKK 23.4 million. Much progress had been made in installation of sewer pipes and house connections progress by February 1989.

Sewerage charges-based on volume of water consumed in the 4 towns: (25% of water meters were out of order) so only estimates are used based on previous consumption, Ksh 12/month. No charge for consumption in excess of 9 m3/month, but more or less a flat rate, which is a regressive action. The costs of the projects are: Busia 26.7 K Sh million, Homa Bay 2.3 K Sh million, Isiolo 18.83 K Sh million, and Nyahururu 43.23 K Sh million. The charges for water supply and sewerage services reflect clearly the underlying principle of cost recovery.

Table 1.23: DANIDA Sewerage Project

(a) Water Supply:

Water Supply Busia Homa Isiolo Nyahururu
Connection fee 287/50 - - 750/- (domestic)
Weekly meter rental 3/50 3/50 3/50 10/-
Monthly tariff per m3 2/50 2/65 2/- (a) Min. 30/- up to 6m3
(b) 6-10m3 : 3/- per m3
(c ) >10m3: 4/- per m3
Minimum Charge per month 21/50 21/50 21/50 30/-

(b) Sewerage

Sewerage Busia Homa Isiolo Nyahunm
Sewer connection fee 500/- 1000/- Res.400/-
Ind 800/-
Monthly sewer rate per m3 3/- 1/20  2/- Up to 6m3 - E20/-
Additional 2/- per m3
Monthly min. charge 15/- 11/- 12/- 20/-
Sewer unblocking fee - - 180/- -
Emptying tank per load 750/- +50/-per km - 250/- -
Res. = Residential; Com. = commercial; ind. =I ndustrial
Source: DANIDA (1989)

Water tariffs and charges are set by Federal Government in respect of water undertaking. Sewerage tariffs and charges are approved by the Ministry of Local Government (MOLG) annually.


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