Newsletter and Technical Publications
<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>
1.11 Case studies (Topic k)
1.11.1 Djiboutiís sewerage system
The sanitation situation in the city state of Djibouti is unique in Africa.
It may not be a best practice example, but is a good one; the problem in showing
it off being the incomparably small scale of its operation. There is no doubt,
however that it demonstrates the principle and itís feasibility where
population can be kept under control. The city of Djibouti which houses some 83%
of the countryís population is served by 24.4 km of sewers. The system
includes 12 lift stations (because of very flat land surface) and a sewage
treatment plant based on the activated sludge process at Douda. The constraints
of its wastewater management include near-zero altitude which limits discharge
into the sea at low tides. Even this tiny country has problem of covering its
high density, low income housing areas where water supply is also inadequate.
The country relies on African Development Bank (ADB) to finance the sanitation
master plan completed in 1988 (World Bank, 1991). The master plan consists of
construction of 8.3 km of main collector, a lift station, expansion of the
treatment plant, and rehabilitation of the existing network.
1.11.2 Ouagadougou: community based water sector development2
The population of Ouagadougou could reach 1.4 million by 2000. Ouagadougou
consists of 30 sectors. A local Fund gathered loans to finance systems of
barrels and carts set up to transport water from standing pipes to houses. More
than 30 barrels and carts were distributed. This was an emergency measure to
solve the problem of acute water shortage and of disposing of wastes in a
sanitary manner. The National Office for Water Supply and Sanitation (ONEA)
connected 14 schools to the city supply network. Parent-Teacherís Association
is responsible for part of the costs.
In 1989 sociologists conducted a socio-sanitary survey. They interviewed
families and completed questionnaires. They involved the public and their
opinion with all phases of development, through health committees and sector
committees, mayors, community, organization and those in charge of sub-sectors.
The project was conceived and led by people of national standing.
Double ventilated pit latrines (DVIP) were installed in public areas
(schools, and free health clinics) and incinerators were set up to handle solid
wastes. The sanitary engineering service of the Education Directorate for Health
and Sanitation ensures the technical supervision of the activities. The Project
also trained local artisans to transfer technologies to the communities that
request them. The measures were low-level activities, but were hope inspiring as
it was community based.
2The contact person is Dr. S.R. Hien, Ministry of Health,
Social Affairs and the Family of Burkina Faso, Directorate of Preventive
1.11.3 Jiguiís Mobilisation and public education in Bamako, Mali3
Hamdallaye District of Bamako is an extended area with 40,000 persons (6,500
households) which had little sanitary infrastructure. A survey conducted by an
economic interest group Jigui identified the existence of unauthorized garbage
dumps and the discharge of waste water in the streets. Jigui worked towards
developing a garbage-collection system, hygiene education, and involving the
population in sanitary projects. It also initiated, supervised and executed
activities with the people. District authorities and technical Services provided
active assistance (such as final waste disposal) and technical advice (on
cesspools and institutional arrangements). The French Development Bank finances
aspects of the project dealing with waste, other aspects are funded by African
Development Bank and Infrastructure Fund of the UN.
The two major areas of focus are:
(a) Operation 'Bseya' or "Cleanliness" - There is daily garbage collection
for all concessions of the district that subscribe. Garbage is deposited in
intermediate points (at CFA 750 per concession per month cost of service): garbage
cans provided are emptied daily, into tipping donkeys carts.
(b) Sanitation - Jigui4 plannned installation of individual cesspits
in the concessions to receive wastewater previously discharged into the street
(World Bank 1996). Enthusiasm is propelled by debates in the concessions, weekly
meetings, and by committees of elders.
3 The contact person is Essay Koudio, SODECI,
avenue Christiani, Abidjan O/BP 1843 CI
Tel: 225-21 0623/212191.
4 The contact person is Moussa Kaba, President of the GIE Jigui, BP
1502 Bamako (Mali)
Tel.: 223-22-34-25; Fax: 223 23 1996.
1.11.4 DANIDAís Kenya Sewerage House Connection Project
Forty centres were identified by the Danish International Development Agency
(DANIDA, 1989) in Kenya to qualify for water borne sewerage systems, and
approximate 30 sewerage systems have since been constructed all over Kenya, at a
cost of DDK 38.9 million (Ksh 51.2 m). The work was partly financed through
foreign donor funds and partly through Government of Kenya (GOK) funds allocated
to Ministry of Local government (MOLG) and Ministry of Water Development (MOWD).
The main donors in the sewerage sector have been AFDF, KFW, NORDA & DANIDA
Commissioned DANIDA projects:
Isiolo - June 1983 (13 % completion)
Busia - September 1983 (38% completion )
Homa Bay - July 1985 - 47% of total costs by DANIDA (33% completion)
Nyahururu - May 1986 - 53% by local loans from local governments, etc. (99%
House connections phase was entered into in 1986 to increase the number of
beneficiaries from the sewerage schemes in the 4 towns from 18,900 (April 1985)
to 43,800 (end of project) at DKK 23.4 million. Much progress had been made in
installation of sewer pipes and house connections progress by February 1989.
Sewerage charges-based on volume of water consumed in the 4 towns: (25% of
water meters were out of order) so only estimates are used based on previous
consumption, Ksh 12/month. No charge for consumption in excess of 9 m3/month,
but more or less a flat rate, which is a regressive action. The costs of the
projects are: Busia 26.7 K Sh million, Homa Bay 2.3 K Sh million, Isiolo 18.83 K
Sh million, and Nyahururu 43.23 K Sh million. The charges for water supply and
sewerage services reflect clearly the underlying principle of cost recovery.
Table 1.23: DANIDA Sewerage Project
(a) Water Supply:
|Weekly meter rental
|Monthly tariff per m3
||(a) Min. 30/- up to 6m3
(b) 6-10m3 : 3/- per m3
(c ) >10m3: 4/- per m3
|Minimum Charge per month
|Sewer connection fee
|Monthly sewer rate per m3
||Up to 6m3 - E20/-
Additional 2/- per m3
|Monthly min. charge
|Sewer unblocking fee
|Emptying tank per load
||750/- +50/-per km
|Res. = Residential; Com. = commercial; ind. =I ndustrial
Source: DANIDA (1989)
Water tariffs and charges are set by Federal Government in respect of water
undertaking. Sewerage tariffs and charges are approved by the Ministry of Local
Government (MOLG) annually.