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<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>

6.2 Reuse of wastewater from on-site systems

Many options are open to a householder who wishes to reuse wastes on-site. One option is separation of all wastes. Urine can be separately collected and stored for later use as a liquid fertiliser, rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Toilet wastes can be composted and used as a soil conditioner, rich in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Greywater can be treated in a constructed wetland and used for sub-surface irrigation of the garden beds (Figure 2.44). This option may be suitable for a householder who is interested in managing wastes for beneficial uses in the garden, being a keen gardener. Sufficient garden area needs to be available for this purpose.

Figure 2.44: Separation of household wastewater for on-site reuse
(Lange and Otterpohl, 1997)

Another option is the use of an evapotranspiration system for growing shrubs and trees (see Section 2 (4.1.4)). This is a passive system, not requiring household attention on a regular basis, except desludging of the septic tank every 3 to 5 years. There is a fairly wide choice of shrubs and trees to choose from depending on local soil and climatic conditions.


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