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United Nations Environment Programme
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics
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Newsletter and Technical Publications
<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>

5.7 Sludge disposal

Final or ultimate disposal of sludge, which cannot be reused, is by landfilling or incineration. Since sludge for landfilling usually contains heavy metals or toxic chemicals, lining of the landfill with clay or plastic liner may be required to prevent contamination of groundwater. Incineration of sludge is by a multiple hearth furnace or fluidised bed furnace. Energy input is required to dry the sludge before combustion is self-sustaining. Combustion flue gases usually need treatment to meet air pollution control standards. Investment and operating costs are high.

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