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United Nations Environment Programme
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Newsletter and Technical Publications
<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>

5.2 Composting

Composting is an aerobic bacterial decomposition process to stabilise organic wastes and produce humus (compost). Compost contains nutrients and organic carbon which are excellent soil conditioners. Composting takes place naturally on a forest floor where organic materials (leaf litter, animal wastes) are converted to more stable organic materials (humus) and the nutrients are released and made available for plant uptake (Section 2 (2.2)). The process is slow on a forest floor, but can be accelerated under optimum conditions.

The optimum conditions for composting are a moisture content of about 50 %, a carbon to nitrogen ratio of about 25 to 30, and temperature of 55 °C. Because wastewater sludge is rich in nutrients its carbon to nitrogen ratio is low (5 to 10). It is also high in moisture. Addition of dry saw dust, which is very high in carbon to nitrogen ratio (500) can adjust both the moisture and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Other waste materials that can be used for this purpose are mulched garden wastes, forest wastes and shredded newspaper.

Composting can be carried out in a specially built composter, such as an inclined rotating cylinder, fed on one end with the raw materials, and the aerated product collected at the other end. As the materials are slowly tumbled over a period of about one week, they are mixed and aerated. Because bacterial decomposition produces heat, temperatures in the insulated composter can easily reach 55 °C. The immature compost is then windrowed for at least 12 weeks to allow the composting process to complete, with occasional turning of the windrow.

Composting can be more simply carried out in windrows (Figure 2.40). Regular turning of the windrows assists with mixing of the materials and more importantly supply the oxygen to the bacteria. Temperatures can reach 55 °C, because compost has a good heat insulating property. Turning of the compost also ensures that all parts of the windrow reach the required 55 °C essential for pathogen destruction. Turning is required every two to three days in the first two weeks when temperature is 55 °C or above. After this period frequent turning of the compost windrow is not required as less heat is generated and less oxygen is required while the compost undergoes maturation.


Figure 2.40: Windrow composting of faecal sludge (FS) (from Heinss et al., 1999)

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