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Newsletter and Technical Publications
<Planning and Management of Lakes and Reservoirs:
An Integrated Approach to Eutrophication>


Image of Publication(Planning and Management of lakes and Reservoirs, an Integrated Approach to Eutrophication) Today, more and more freshwater bodies have become polluted by nutrients originating from agricultural, domestic and industrial sources. This situation causes these freshwater bodies to become eutrophied. In an effort to prevent this problem, significant financial resources have been invested in expensive infrastructure and equipment, yet the situation is worsening. Furthermore, there has been a misconception that the only way to prevent the problem is through the use of technology. Technology can assist in this endeavor, but it is not the only answer.

The process of eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is very much related to how society functions. These societal factors are rarely comprehensively addressed, even when experts undertake the diagnosis of existing environmental problems.

UNEP, as the lead agency on environmental matters for the United Nations, ensures that a holistic and multisectoral approach is followed when analyses are made and solutions are provided to address environmental problems like the eutrophication of freshwater bodies. Recognizing that the problem of eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs and its rate of appearance is becoming larger all over the world, the International Environmental Technology Centre of UNEP has produced this publication.

The book "Planning and Management of Lakes and Reservoirs: An Integrated Approach to Eutrophication" is the result of the participation of 26 experts involved with the management of freshwater resources from Africa, Europe, North and South America, Asia and Oceania. Their experiences on the causes and possible ways to prevent eutrophication have been assembled here. While this publication is not intended to be a technical manual on how to prevent or solve the problem of eutrophication, it does provide a comprehensive view of the essential components and processes to address the issue effectively.

A Training Module designed for training personnel involved in watershed planning has also been produced to complement the book. This element of capacity building ensures that information is disseminated, and that knowledge drawn from experience is put into practice at the regional, sub-regional and national levels.

Eutrophied water bodies can cause severe economic, environmental and social problems. The comprehensive management of water resources, particularly lakes and reservoirs, is vital for the sustainability of communities. With the release of this publication, UNEP-IETC believes it has produced a value-added publication on the management of lakes and reservoirs, specifically addressing eutrophication. A holistic perspective will lead to a better understanding of the issue, enabling stakeholders to deal with eutrophication in an environmentally appropriate fashion.


----- Table of Contents -----

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF EUTROPHICATION

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Eutrophication as an Environmental Problem
1.2.1. Limnological Background
1.2.2. External Loading to Lakes
1.2.3. Internal Supply
1.2.4. Role of Sediments in Eutrophication
1.2.5. Limiting Factors
1.3. Impact of Eutrophication
1.3.1. Characteristics of Eutrophication
1.3.2. Effects of Eutrophication
1.3.3. Case Studies of Effects of Eutrophication
1.4. Causes of Eutrophication
1.4.1. Assessment Approach
1.4.2. Modeling Approach
1.4.3. Results of Assessment of Eutrophication
1.5. Management Guidelines
1.6. Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 2. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF EUTROPHICATION

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Global Societies and their Social and Cultural Aspects of Water
2.3. Development Status
2.4. Approaches to Solution of Eutrophication
2.5. Examples of History and Culture in Improving Aquatic Environment
2.5.1. The Indian Scenario
2.5.2. Lake Malawai and East African Great Lakes Region
2.6. Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 3. POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

3.1. Introduction
3.2. General Background
3.3. Basic Principles
3.3.1. International Experience
3.3.2. The Watershed Approach
3.4. Policies for Eutrophication Control
3.4.1. International Background
3.4.2. Some Relevant Management Tools to Support Eutrophication Control Policy
3.5. Institutional Framework
3.5.1. General Background
3.5.2. Institutional Organization for Water Resources Management
3.5.3. River Basin Committees
3.5.4. Some Key Issues Concerning Institutional Organization for Eutrophication Management
3.6. Regulatory Framework
3.7. Resources
3.7.1. Human Resources
3.8. Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 4. PUBLIC AWARENESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Environmental Public Awareness
4.2.1. Tools of Public Awareness Development
4.2.2. Short Characteristics of the Most Effective Tools
4.3. Public Participation
4.3.1. Decision Making Process with Public Participation
4.3.2. Identification of Stakeholders and Methods for Screening
4.3.3. Forms of Public Involvement
4.3.4. Stimulation and Integration of Stakeholders
4.4. Environmental Education
4.4.1. Education of Children and School Pupils
4.4.2. Environmental Education in High Schools and Universities
4.4.3. Education of Decision-Makers
4.4.4. Selection of Educational Material
4.4.5. The Role of Art in Education
4.4.6. Evaluating Progress of Public Environmental Education
4.5. Funding
4.6. Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 5. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF EUTROPHICATION

5.1. Introduction
5.1.1. Scope of the Chapter
5.1.2. Relevant Elements of the Chapter
5.2. Allocation of Water Resources and Eutrophication
5.2.1. Private and Social Interests
5.2.2. Water Scarcity and Institutional Constrains
5.2.3. The Economics of Eutrophication
5.3. Sources and Impact of Eutrophication
5.3.1. Economic Sources of Eutrophication (Backward Linkages)
5.3.2. Economic Impacts of Eutrophication (Forward Linkages)
5.3.3. Evidence on the Economic Impacts of Eutrophication
5.4. Economic Mechanisms for Prevention and Control
5.4.1. Conceptual Framework
5.4.2. Description of Economic Instruments
5.4.3. Development of Markets
5.5. Economic Evaluation of Eutrophication
5.5.1. Overview of Benefit-cost Analysis
5.5.2. Valuation Methodologies
5.6. Examples of Costs of Eutrophication Control and Benefits-Costs Analysis in Lake Management
5.7. Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 6. TECHNOLOGICAL AND MANAGERIAL ASPECTS OF EUTROPHICATION

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Waste Water Treatment System
6.3. Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSPs)
6.4. Constructed Wetlands
6.5. Ecological Approach to Sanitation
6.6. Selection of a Proper Solution to Different Waste Water Problems
6.7. Waste Disposal Problems
6.8. Land Use Control
6.9. Sediment Remediation
6.9.1. Watershed Sediment Control
6.10. Monitoring as a Management and Decision-Making Tool in Water Quality and Eutrophication
6.10.1. Setting Program Objectives
6.10.2. Types of Monitoring
6.10.3. Decision-Making for Eutrophication Management and Control
6.10.4. Data for Eutrophication Management and Control
6.11. Restoration Methods
6.11.1. Examples of Remediation of Reservoirs
6.12. Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 7. MANAGEMENT

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Management of Water Reservoirs: The Russian Experience
7.2.1. Environmental Conditions of the Water Reservoirs
7.2.2. Management of External Nutrients Load in Water Reservoirs
7.2.3. Management of the Internal Water Exchange within the Water Reservoirs
7.2.4. Methodology for Designing the Environmental Reconstruction of the Water Reservoirs
7.2.5. Perspectives
7.3. Management of Lakes and Reservoirs in Africa and Other Parts of the World
7.3.1. Management Systems: Selected Examples of Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements
7.3.2. Institutional and Infrastructure Requirements
7.4. Management of Reservoirs in Latin America
7.4.1. General Characteristics of the Reservoirs
7.4.2. Management of the Reservoirs
7.4.3. Ecotechnologies for Watershed/Reservoir Management
7.5. Climate Changes
7.6. New Approach to the Management of Water Resources
7.7. Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 8. NEW APPROACH TO EUTROPHICATION CONTROL: IMPROVING MANAGEMENT CAPACITY

LOCATION OF LAKES

GLOSSARY

ACRONYMS AND SYMBOLS

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUGGESTED READING

INDEX

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