Series No. 7
Approach in Environmental Management
Considerations For The Application of Phytotechnologies >
D. Operations and Maintenance
An operations and maintenance plan will ensure optimal performance of the
phytotechnology application. The level of detail in an operations and maintenance
plan is a function of the type of phytotechnology being use. For example, a
more detailed operation and maintenance plan would likely be required for wetland operations than for a riparian buffer.
The operation and maintenance plan should address a wide variety of requirements.
An irrigation system may be needed to start plants or to keep them growing.
Soil conditions should be monitored for pH, fertilizer requirements, and needed
soil amendments. The site may need fencing to keep out people and animals.
The site maintenance plan should address pruning, thinning, mowing, weed control
and litter removal.
Table 8 lists some of the parameters that should be part of an operations
and maintenance plan for phytotechnology applications.
Table 8: Operations and Maintenance Requirements for Phytotechnologies
| Soil conditions
||Maintain soil amendments, soil pH, and fertilizer requirements
||Irrigation system may be needed to start plants and may be needed during
||Plants may need to be thinned, pruned, mowed and treated to control weeds
||Fencing may need to be installed to keep people and animals out. Fencing
is an important safety factor when wetlands are used.
||Replanting will be required for annual plants. Replanting trees will
be required if they are damaged or fail to grow.
||Phytotechnology applications attract mice, rats, starlings and other
vectors that may be a nuisance. A suitable control plan will be needed.
|Monitoring well maintenance
||Monitoring wells will be needed and they require some maintenance.
|Disposal of plant waste
||Plant waste will need to be collected and disposed of properly. For some
phytoremediation applications, plant waste may need to be treated as a
||Best management practices should be used to control stormwater runoff
from the site
| Mechanical support systems
||Maintenance will be required for mechanical systems
| Wetlands systems
||Pond maintenance, plant harvesting, influent and effluent monitoring,
and sediment control will be required.
The monitoring plan for a phytotechnology site needs to address environmental
quality objectives and use established sampling protocols. Monitoring of groundwater,
soil, sediment, plants, air and surface water at the site will initially be
required. The monitoring plan must address basic issues affecting plant health
including soil nutrients, soil pH, soil microbial activity and tree sap flow
monitoring. Water monitoring at a site where a phytotechnology is being applied
should include soil water, groundwater, surface water, runoff and effluent
(from a wetland). The frequency and types of water tests will be site-specific,
depending upon site conditions.
The monitoring plan should be designed to collect data to optimize the phytotechnology
system, monitor the adverse impacts to the ecosystem, and measure progress
in meeting overall objectives. The monitoring plan should therefore contain
the following basic elements: