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United Nations Environment Programme
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Water and Sanitation - Publications and Tools


SubWet 2.0 cover imageSubWet 2.0, Mar 2010 – The Subsurface Wetland Model software SubWet 2.0 has been developed to support the decision-making process by assisting experts and water managers in the design of constructed wetlands to improve water quality and treat domestic wastewater. Furthermore, SubWet 2.0 can also be used as a tool to improve the efficiency of low or non-performing systems and model different operational scenarios such as higher or lower volumes or higher or lower concentrations of contaminants. Due to its characteristics this software is very useful for training technicians and students who are interested in modelling artificial wetlands.


Iraq Project: 2004-9 cover image Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands: 2004-2009, English version: Jan 2010 (PDF 2.5MB) / Arabic version: Jun 2010 (PDF 3.2MB) – The completion report for the “UNEP Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands” project has been published. This publication presents the background of the project, project activities, and major outputs and benefits achieved for all the project phases. The report also makes recommendations on additional initiatives to improve the environmental conditions for the Marshlands area as well as for the country.


ISWM plan vol.4 cover imageLessons Learned on Mainstreaming Pilot Projects into Larger Projects, Dec 2009 (PDF 246KB) – This report summarizes lessons learned from implementing Environmentally Sound Technology (EST) pilot projects by the International Environmental Technology Centre of UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP-DTIE-IETC). The document aims to inform national level mainstreaming of the EST pilot project results, and provides lessons learned for decision makers in national governments and for international technical cooperation personnel. The featured projects were conducted within three pillars of IETC’s focal areas. They are: Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands project in the water-sanitation pillar; Integrated Solid Waste Management project in China, India and Lesotho under the waste management pillar; and ESTs for Building waste Reduction in Indonesia (DEBRI) project under the disaster management pillar. Each project and cross-cutting lessons learned focus on six areas, which are project management structure, governance, capacity building, EST implementation, financing, and local conditions/infrastructure.


Every Drop Counts cover image Every Drop Counts: Environmentally Sound Technologies for Urban and Domestic Water Use Efficiency, Nov 2008 – The publication relates to efficient water use in urban and domestic environments through water use efficiency maximizing and optimizing between safe and sufficient supply and demand. It also deals with overall policies and criteria for selecting Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) and their application. A comprehensive number Fact Sheets of ESTs applicable for the the Urban Water Cycle is part of the publication. Every Drop Counts also includes a CD ROM with capacity building materials and an Excel-based model “WiseWater” designed to analyze the potential application of ESTs at household as well as at property level.


Training Manuals for the Support for Environmental Management of Iraqi Marshlands Project (in English and Arabic) - As part of every training course delivered under UNEP’s project, Support for the Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands, UNEP in collaboration with various partner institutions produced training manuals to accompany each course. All of the manuals deal with different aspects of sustainable environmental management of the Marshlands and cover subject matter under three categories: policy and institutional, technical, and data management and analysis. All manuals published within the framework of this project are available to download in both English and Arabic.


ponds and wetlands cover imageWaste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands - Design Manual, 2005 - The design manual for Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands presented in this CD ROM gives a comprehensive technical information about their planning, design and operation.
Also a number of numerical models are included to assist in finding the size of a constructed wetland or stabilization pond, reduce the concentration of heavy metals, phosphorous and nitrogen amongst other important variables. The Manual is the result of a joint co-operation between the Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, with the support of the Danish International Development Agency (Danida).


Pamolare2 cover imageEutrophication Management PAMOLARE2 - Shallow Lakes - model,Dec 2005 - The PAMOLARE2 model uses structurally dynamic principles for the management of eutrophication in shallow lakes. This model complements the first version of PAMOLARE launched by UNEP DTIE-IETC and ILEC in 2002, which included a series of models for eutrophication management but lacked the capability to foresee the interactions between algae, macrophites and fish.


Integrated Watershed Management cover imageIntegrated Watershed Management - Ecohydrology & Phytotechology - Manual, Nov 2005 - The manual is one of the results of the co-operation between the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization - International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO-IHP), represented by the Regional Bureau for Science in Europe (UNESCO-ROSTE) and the United Nations Environment Programme - Division of Technology, Industry and Economics - International Environmental Technology Centre (UNEP DTIE IETC).

It contains results of the first joint Ecohydrology & Phytotechnology Demonstration Project "Application of Ecohydrology and Phytotechnology for Water Resources Management and Sustainable Development on the Pilica River catchment" in the Republic of Poland. The project was undertaken by the International Centre for Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences (ICE-PAS) and Centre for Ecohydrological Studies, University of Lodz (CEHSUL).


Wastewater Reuse cover imageWater and Wastewater Reuse - An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban Water Management , Nov 2005 - Water scarcity and water pollution pose a critical challenge in many developing countries. In urban areas, it is becoming difficult for the authorities to manage water supply and wastewater. Strategies for water and wastewater reuse can improve urban water management.
This publication provides introductory guidelines for these strategies. The important aspects to minimize public health risks are identified. The possibilities of wastewater reuse in agriculture, industry, urban uses, and environmental water enhancement including groundwater recharge are discussed with the help of practical examples.
The capacity building policy-making, institutional strengthening, financial mechanisms, and awareness raising and stakeholder participation are vital to implement these strategies for wastewater reuse.


Roundtable(Dec04) cover imageReport of the UNEP Roundtable on Iraqi Marshland Management (PDF 1.4MB), 2005 - The Amman Roundtable on Iraqi Marshland Management was organized by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on 21 and 22 September 2004 in Amman, Jordan. The Roundtable was one of the initial activities for UNEP’s “Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands” project, which is being implemented within the framework of the United Nations Trust Fund for Iraqi Reconstruction. Dialogue during the project preparation process, with the Iraqi counterparts, UN agencies within the UN Trust Fund mechanism, and donor agencies, identified a clear need to discuss various on-going initiatives and to facilitate coordinated response for marshland management. UNEP was requested to organize a meeting to address this need.


FMS7 conver imagePhytotechnologies; A Technical Approach in Environmental Management, [FMS7] March, 2003
- The conceptual overview of phytotechnologies and their importance in relation to various environmental problems and potential solutions. It provides the basis of a conceptual framework for understanding the importance of ecosystems approaches in helping to achieve sustainable development objectives. It also examines the role of phytotechnology in relation to some key issues including integrated water resources management, urban environmental management, biodiversity and climate change.


FMS10 cover imageManaging Urban Sewage; an Introductory Guide for Decision-makers [FMS10], March, 2003 - The scope of sewage management has evolved throughout history with changes in socioeconomic conditions, city structures, and the environment. Today, sewage infrastructure that is well planned and operated supports urban sanitation and related activities. Effective sewage management is essential for nutrient recycling and for maintaining ecosystem integrity.


FMS5 cover imageGuidelines for the Integrated Management of the Watershed –Phytotechnology and Ecohydrology [FMS5], December, 2002 - Integrated Water Resource Management as defined by the Global Water Partnership (GWP) is a process that considers the co-ordination of development and management of water, land and related resources to enhance economic and social welfare without jeopardizing the sustainability of the ecosystem. Ecohydrology together with the application of Phytotechnology consider the basic principles of IWRM in practice.


FMS1 cover imageBiosolids Management; An Environmentally Sound Approach for Managing Sewage Treatment Plants Sludge [FMS1] November, 2002 - Proper treated sludge, known as biosolids, has important economic and environmental value due to its high concentration of organic nutrients, making it valuable for use as fertilizer in agriculture or other practices in urban areas while at the same assisting in solving the enormous problem of sludge disposal.


FMS2 cover imagePhytoremediation: An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and Remediation [FMS2]
November, 2002
- Phytoremediation is a reliable option for pollution control in soil and water, based on the properties of plants to accumulate pollutants in their roots and leaves showing that its application has also been shown to be more economical than other options. Although the practice has some limitations, it is becoming more popular due to its benefits in different countries


UE2 cover imageRainwater Harvesting and Utilization [UE-2], Mar 2002 - Physical alternatives to fulfill sustainable management of freshwater include the finding of alternate or additional water resources using conventional centralized approaches; or better utilizing the limited amount of water resources available in a more efficient way. Among the various alternative technologies to augment freshwater resources, rainwater harvesting and utilization is a decentralized, environmentally sound solution.


tech15 cover imageInternational Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Wastewater and Stormwater Management [TP 15]
March, 2002
- The urgent need for information on how to deal with wastewater is clearly shown by the fact that nearly 3 billion people are without adequate sanitation and its impact on health economic productivity and environmental degradation. This publication provides information on ESTs applied for wastewater and stormwater management.


SB summary cover imageEnvironmentally Sound Technologies in wastewater treatment
for the implementation of the UNEP Global Programme of Action (GPA) "Guidance On Municipal Wastewater, January, 2002
- This document has been prepared by UNEP DTIE IETC as a contribution to the UNEP GPA and is based upon the "Recommendations for Decision-making on Municipal Wastewater: Practical Policy Guidance for Implementing the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) on Sewage" (Version 10 November 2000). It is recognized that this latter document is under review and will be replaced by "Guidance on Municipal Wastewater: Practical Guidance for Implementing the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) on Sewage" that is being prepared. Therefore, the UNEP DTIE IETC document will be subject to revision following adoption of this latter document by the UNEP GPA.


Other publication related to water including eutrophication management and numerical models for the environmental management of this process is also included within IETC set of publication.