Water and Sanitation - Publications and Tools
SubWet 2.0, Mar 2010
– The Subsurface Wetland Model software SubWet 2.0 has been developed to support the decision-making process by assisting experts and water managers in the design of constructed wetlands to improve water quality and treat domestic wastewater. Furthermore, SubWet 2.0 can also be used as a tool to improve the efficiency of low or non-performing systems and model different operational scenarios such as higher or lower volumes or higher or lower concentrations of contaminants. Due to its characteristics this software is very useful for training technicians and students who are interested in modelling artificial wetlands.
Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands: 2004-2009, English version: Jan 2010 (PDF 2.5MB) / Arabic version: Jun 2010 (PDF 3.2MB) – The completion report for the “UNEP Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands” project has been published. This publication presents the background of the project, project activities, and major outputs and benefits achieved for all the project phases. The report also makes recommendations on additional initiatives to improve the environmental conditions for the Marshlands area as well as for the country.
Lessons Learned on Mainstreaming Pilot Projects into Larger Projects, Dec 2009 (PDF 246KB) – This report summarizes lessons learned from implementing Environmentally Sound Technology (EST) pilot projects by the International Environmental Technology Centre of UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP-DTIE-IETC). The document aims to inform national level mainstreaming of the EST pilot project results, and provides lessons learned for decision makers in national governments and for international technical cooperation personnel.
The featured projects were conducted within three pillars of IETC’s focal areas. They are: Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands project in the water-sanitation pillar; Integrated Solid Waste Management project in China, India and Lesotho under the waste management pillar; and ESTs for Building waste Reduction in Indonesia (DEBRI) project under the disaster management pillar.
Each project and cross-cutting lessons learned focus on six areas, which are project management structure, governance, capacity building, EST implementation, financing, and local conditions/infrastructure.
Every Drop Counts: Environmentally Sound Technologies for Urban and Domestic Water Use Efficiency, Nov 2008
– The publication relates to efficient water use in urban and domestic environments through water use efficiency maximizing and optimizing between safe and sufficient supply and demand. It also deals with overall policies and criteria for selecting Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) and their application. A comprehensive number Fact Sheets of ESTs applicable for the the Urban Water Cycle is part of the publication. Every Drop Counts also includes a CD ROM with capacity building materials and an Excel-based model “WiseWater” designed to analyze the potential application of ESTs at household as well as at property level.
Manuals for the Support for Environmental Management of Iraqi Marshlands
Project (in English and Arabic) - As part of every training
course delivered under UNEP’s project, Support for the Environmental
Management of the Iraqi Marshlands, UNEP in collaboration with various
partner institutions produced training manuals to accompany each course.
All of the manuals deal with different aspects of sustainable environmental
management of the Marshlands and cover subject matter under three categories:
policy and institutional, technical, and data management and analysis.
All manuals published within the framework of this project are available
to download in both English and Arabic.
Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands - Design Manual, 2005 -
The design manual
for Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands presented in this CD
design and operation.
Also a number of numerical models are included to assist in finding the size
of a constructed wetland or stabilization pond, reduce the concentration of heavy
metals, phosphorous and nitrogen amongst other important variables. The Manual
is the result of a joint co-operation between the Danish University of Pharmaceutical
Sciences and the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, with the support of
the Danish International Development Agency (Danida).
Management PAMOLARE2 - Shallow Lakes - model,Dec 2005 -
The PAMOLARE2 model uses structurally dynamic principles for the management of
eutrophication in shallow lakes. This model complements the first version of
PAMOLARE launched by UNEP DTIE-IETC and ILEC in 2002, which included a series
of models for eutrophication management but lacked the capability to foresee
the interactions between algae, macrophites and fish.
Watershed Management - Ecohydrology & Phytotechology - Manual,
The manual is one of the results of the co-operation between the United Nations
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization - International Hydrological
Programme (UNESCO-IHP), represented by the Regional Bureau for Science in Europe
(UNESCO-ROSTE) and the United Nations Environment Programme - Division of Technology,
Industry and Economics - International Environmental Technology Centre (UNEP
It contains results of the first joint Ecohydrology & Phytotechnology
Demonstration Project "Application of Ecohydrology and Phytotechnology
for Water Resources Management and Sustainable Development on the Pilica River
the Republic of Poland. The project was undertaken by the International Centre
for Ecology, Polish
Academy of Sciences (ICE-PAS) and Centre for Ecohydrological Studies, University
of Lodz (CEHSUL).
and Wastewater Reuse - An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban
Water Management , Nov 2005 - Water scarcity
and water pollution pose a critical challenge in many developing countries.
areas, it is becoming difficult for the authorities to manage water supply
and wastewater. Strategies for water and wastewater reuse can improve urban
This publication provides introductory guidelines for these strategies. The
important aspects to minimize public health risks are identified. The possibilities
of wastewater reuse in agriculture, industry, urban uses, and environmental
water enhancement including groundwater recharge are discussed with the help
of practical examples.
The capacity building policy-making, institutional strengthening, financial
mechanisms, and awareness raising and stakeholder participation are vital to
implement these strategies for wastewater reuse.
of the UNEP Roundtable on Iraqi Marshland Management (PDF 1.4MB), 2005 -
The Amman Roundtable on Iraqi Marshland Management was organized by the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on 21 and 22 September 2004
in Amman, Jordan. The Roundtable was one of the initial activities for
UNEP’s “Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands” project,
which is being implemented within the framework of the United Nations Trust
Fund for Iraqi Reconstruction. Dialogue during the project preparation
process, with the Iraqi counterparts, UN agencies within the UN Trust Fund
mechanism, and donor agencies, identified a clear need to discuss various
on-going initiatives and to facilitate coordinated response for marshland
management. UNEP was requested to organize a meeting to address this need.
A Technical Approach in Environmental Management, [FMS7] March, 2003
- The conceptual
overview of phytotechnologies and their importance in relation to various
environmental problems and potential solutions. It provides the
basis of a conceptual framework for understanding the importance of ecosystems
approaches in helping to achieve sustainable development objectives. It also
examines the role of phytotechnology in relation to some key issues including
integrated water resources management, urban environmental management, biodiversity
and climate change.
Urban Sewage; an Introductory Guide for Decision-makers [FMS10], March, 2003 - The
scope of sewage management has evolved throughout history with changes in
conditions, city structures, and the environment. Today, sewage
infrastructure that is well planned and operated supports urban sanitation
and related activities. Effective sewage management is essential for nutrient
recycling and for maintaining ecosystem integrity.
for the Integrated Management of the Watershed –Phytotechnology
and Ecohydrology [FMS5], December, 2002 - Integrated Water Resource
Management as defined by the Global Water Partnership (GWP) is a process
of development and management
of water, land and related resources to enhance economic and social welfare
without jeopardizing the sustainability of the ecosystem. Ecohydrology together
with the application of Phytotechnology consider the basic principles of IWRM
Management; An Environmentally Sound Approach for Managing Sewage Treatment
Plants Sludge [FMS1] November, 2002 - Proper treated sludge, known as biosolids, has
important economic and environmental value due to its high concentration
nutrients, making it valuable
for use as fertilizer in agriculture or other practices in urban areas while
at the same assisting in solving the enormous problem of sludge disposal.
An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and
November, 2002 - Phytoremediation is a reliable option for pollution
control in soil and water, based on the properties of plants to accumulate
pollutants in their roots and
leaves showing that its application has also been shown to be more economical
than other options. Although the practice has some limitations, it is becoming
more popular due to its benefits in different countries
Harvesting and Utilization [UE-2], Mar 2002 - Physical alternatives to fulfill
sustainable management of freshwater include the finding of alternate or
additional water resources using conventional centralized
approaches; or better utilizing the limited amount of water resources available
in a more efficient way. Among the various alternative technologies to augment
freshwater resources, rainwater harvesting and utilization is a decentralized,
environmentally sound solution.
Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Wastewater and Stormwater
Management [TP 15]
March, 2002 - The urgent need for information on how to deal with
wastewater is clearly shown by the fact that nearly 3 billion people are
without adequate sanitation
and its impact on health economic productivity and environmental degradation.
This publication provides information on ESTs applied for wastewater and stormwater
Sound Technologies in wastewater treatment
for the implementation of the UNEP Global Programme of Action (GPA) "Guidance
On Municipal Wastewater, January, 2002 - This document has been
prepared by UNEP DTIE IETC as a contribution to the UNEP GPA and is based upon
for Decision-making on Municipal Wastewater: Practical Policy Guidance for
Implementing the Global
Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based
Activities (GPA) on Sewage" (Version 10 November 2000). It is recognized
that this latter document is under review and will be replaced by "Guidance
on Municipal Wastewater: Practical Guidance for Implementing the Global Programme
of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities
(GPA) on Sewage" that is being prepared. Therefore, the UNEP DTIE IETC
document will be subject to revision following adoption of this latter document
by the UNEP GPA.
Other publication related to water including eutrophication
management and numerical models for the environmental management of this
process is also included
within IETC set of publication.