space
About UNEP
space
space
United Nations Environment Programme
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics
top image
space
space space space
space
space
Newsletter and Technical Publications
<International Source Book On Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Wastewater and Stormwater Management>

This 'International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Wastewater and Stormwater Management' is a sequel to IETC's successful publication 'International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Management'. The urgent need for information on how to deal with wastewater is clearly shown by the fact that nearly 3 billion people are without adequate sanitation and its impact on health, medical bills, consequent loss of economic productivity and environmental degradation.

....This Source Book complements UNEP's Practical Policy Guidance for the implementation of the Global Programme of Action (GPA) for the protection of the marine environment from land based activities. Much of the pollution from land based activities come with wastewater and stormwater. Though approached from different angles the two publications are consistent in their message.


----- Table of Contents -----

Preface
Acknowledgements
 
Introduction
Purpose and intended audience of the Source Book
Structure of the Source Book
How to use this book
The Source Book as compared to a technical manual
 
Section 1: Toward a Framework for Wastewater and Stormwater Management
  1 Problems facing communities without adequate sanitation
  2 Integrated Waste Management
  3 Cross-cutting issues
  4 Framework for wastewater and stormwater management
 
Section 2: Environmentally Sound Technologies and Practices
  1 Overview of the Sound Technologies and Practices section
     
  2 Wastewater and stormwater characteristics
    2.1 Impact of wastewater and stormwater
    2.2 Natural purification processes
    2.3 Role of micro-organisms
    2.4 Sustainable versus unsustainable wastewater and stormwater management
         
  3 Wastewater and stormwater collection
    3.1 Conventional sewerage
    3.2 Simplified sewerage
    3.3 Settled sewerage
    3.4 Stormwater collection
         
  4 Wastewater and stormwater treatment
    4.1 On-site waste water treatment systems
      4.1.1 Pit latrine
      4.1.2 Composting toilet
      4.1.3 Pour flush toilet
      4.1.4 Septic tank
      4.1.5 Improved on-site treatment units
    4.2 Off-site wastewater treatment systems
      4.2.1 Activated sludge treatment
      4.2.2 Trickling filtration
      4.2.3 Lagoons
      4.2.4 Land-based treatment
      4.2.5 Constructed wetland
      4.2.6 Anaerobic treatment
    4.3 Stormwater treatment
      4.3.1 Filter strips and swales
      4.3.2 Filter drains and permeable surfaces
      4.3.3 Infiltration devices
      4.3.4 Basins and ponds
         
  5 Sludge treatment, reuse and disposal
    5.1 Stabilisation
    5.2 Composing
    5.3 Anaerobic digestion
    5.4 Thickening
    5.5 Dewatering and drying
    5.6 Reuse
    5.7 Disposal
         
  6 Wastewater and stormwater reuse
    6.1 Wastewater reuse from off-site treatment plants
      6.1.1 Agriculture
      6.1.2 Aquaculture
      6.1.3 Industry
    6.2 Reuse of wastewater from on-site systems
    6.3 Stormwater reuse
      6.3.1 Household level
      6.3.2

Municipal level

       
  7 Wastewater and stormwater disposal
    7.1 Land-based disposal of wastewater
    7.2 Wastewater disposal to water environments
    7.3

Stormwater disposal

       
  8 Sound Practices
    8.1 Technology choice
    8.2 Environmental considerations
    8.3 Economic factors
    8.4 Social and institutional factors
    8.5 Scenarios for sound Practices
         
  9 Wastewater reuse through Aquaculture
    9.1 Aquaculture
    9.2 Towards sound wastewater reuse practice
    9.3 Case studies
         
References
         
Section 3 Regional Overviews and Information Sources
     
  1 Africa
   
1.1 Wastewater and stormwater characteristics
1.2 Collection
1.3 Treatment
1.4 Reuse
1.5 Disposal
1.6 Policy and institutional framework
1.7 Training
1.8 Public education
1.9 Financing
1.10 Information sources
1.11 Case studies
     
  2 Asia (West)
   
2.1 Wastewater and stormwater characteristics
2.2 Collection
2.3 Treatment
2.4 Reuse
2.5 Disposal
2.6 Policy and institutional framework
2.7 Training
2.8 Public education
2.9 Financing
2.10 Information sources
2.11 Case studies
  Reference
     
  3 Asia (Pacific)
   
3.1 Wastewater and stormwater characteristics
3.2 Collection
3.3 Treatment
3.4 Reuse
3.5 Disposal
3.6 Policy and institutional framework
3.7 Training
3.8 Public education
3.9 Financing
3.10 Information sources
3.11 Case studies
  Reference
     
  4 America (North)
   
4.1 Wastewater and stormwater characteristics
4.2 Collection
4.3 Treatment
4.4 Reuse
4.5 Disposal
4.6 Policy and institutional framework
4.7 Training
4.8 Public education
4.9 Financing
4.10 Information sources
4.11 Case studies
  Reference
     
  5 America (Central and South)
   
5.1 Wastewater characteristics
5.2 Collection and transfer
5.3 Treatment
5.4 Reuse
5.5 Wastewater disposal
5.6 Policy and institutional framework
5.7 Training
5.9 Financing
5.10 Information sources
5.11 Case studies
  Reference
     
  6 Europe (West)
   
6.1 Wastewater characteristics
6.2 Collection and transfer
6.3 Treatment
6.4 Reuse
6.5 Disposal
6.6 Policy and institutional framework
6.7 Training
6.8 Public education
6.9 Financing
6.10 Information sources
6.11 Case studies
  Reference
     
  7 Europe (East)
   
7.1 Wastewater characteristics
7.2 Collection and transfer
7.3 Treatment
7.4 Reuse
7.5 Disposal
7.6 Policy and institutional framework
7.7 Training
7.8 Public education
7.9 Financing
7.10 Information sources
7.11 Case studies
  Reference
     
  8 Small Island Developing States (Pacific)
   
8.1 Wastewater characteristics
8.2 Collection and transfer
8.3 Treatment
8.4 Reuse
8.5 Disposal
8.6 Policy and institutional framework
8.7 Training
8.8 Public education
8.9 Financing
8.10 Information sources
8.11 Case study 1
  Reference
  Case study 2
  Reference
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
     
  9

Small Island Developing States (Caribbean)

   
9.1 Wastewater characteristics
9.2 Collection and transfer
9.3 Treatment
9.4 Reuse
9.5 Disposal
9.6 Policy and institutional framework
9.7 Training
9.8 Public education
9.9 Financing
9.10 Information sources
9.11 Case studies
Appendices
  1 Public health aspects of Wastewater and Stormwater Management
  2 Relative costs of Wastewater and Stormwater Management
  3 maESTro and UNEP Contact Information
     
Bibliography
Glossary
     
  • Brochure
  • IETC Brochure


  • International Year of Forests
  • International Year of Forests


  • World Environment Day
  • ??????


  • UNEP Campaign
  • UNite to Combat Climate Change