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About UNEP
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United Nations Environment Programme
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics
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ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES
in wastewater treatment
for the implementation of the
UNEP GLOBAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION (GPA)
 "GUIDANCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER"
 

in collaboration with
Murdoch University Environmental Technology Centre
 


This document has been prepared by UNEP DTIE IETC as a contribution to the UNEP GPA and is based upon the "Recommendations for Decision-making on Municipal Wastewater: Practical Policy Guidance for Implementing the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) on Sewage" (Version 10 November 2000). It is recognized that this latter document is under review and will be replaced by "Guidance on Municipal Wastewater: Practical Guidance for Implementing the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) on Sewage" that is being prepared. Therefore, the UNEP DTIE IETC document will be subject to revision following adoption of this latter document by the UNEP GPA.


Table of Contents

Preface
Environmentally Sound Technologies
  1 Overview
  2 Wastewater and Stormwater Characteristics
    2.1 Integrated Waste Management
    2.2 Sustainable versus Unsustainable Wastewater and Stormwater Management
  3 Wastewater and Stormwater Collection
    3.1 Conventional sewerage
    3.2 Simplified sewerage
    3.3 Settled sewerage
    3.4 Stormwater collection
  4 Wastewater and stormwater treatment
    4.1 On-site wastewater treatment systems
    4.2 Off-site wastewater treatment systems
    4.3 Stormwater treatment
  5 Sludge treatment, reuse and disposal
    5.1 Stabilisation
    5.2 Composting
    5.3 Anaerobic digestion
    5.4 Thickening
    5.5 Dewatering and drying
    5.6 Sludge reuse
    5.7 Sludge disposal
  6 Wastewater and stormwater reuse
    6.1 Wastewater reuse from off-site treatment plants
    6.2 Reuse of wastewater from on-site systems
    6.3 Stormwater reuse
  7 Wastewater and stormwater disposal
    7.1 Land-based disposal of wastewater
    7.2 Wastewater disposal to water environments
    7.3 Stormwater disposal
  8 Sound Practices
    8.1 Technology choice
    8.2 Selection of technology
    8.3 Scenarios for Sound Practices
  References

 

The views reflected in this publication are provided for information and do not necessarily represent the policy of UNEP. Mention of commercial technologies and products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by UNEP.
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