4.1 On-site wastewater treatment systems
On-site treatment relies on decomposition of the organic wastes in human
excreta by bacteria. This can take place in a simple pit in the ground or in
specially designed tanks to promote the bacterial decomposition of the wastes.
Unless re-use of the wastewater is specifically intended (see Section 6 on
Wastewater reuse), the overflow from the pit or tank is allowed to soak into the
ground. Further bacteriological decomposition and soil filtration, absorption
and purification processes take place in the soil. The potential for groundwater
pollution, however, exists with on-site treatment and disposal systems, because
not all pollutants (e.g. nitrate) are removed by these processes.
Pit latrine, pour flush latrine, composting toilet, septic tank and two
improved on-site treatment units are described below because they represent
major types of on-site treatment systems. Variations of these exist and are used
in different areas of the world. Some of these are described in greater detail
in the Regional Overviews in the Source Book published by IWA and IETC. The
treatment principles are, however, covered under these major types.
4.1.1 Pit latrine
A pit latrine collects excreta in a pit dug in the ground beneath the toilet
structure. If the soil is loose the pit needs to be lined with, for example,
loose bricks to prevent the wall from collapsing. During storage in the pit
decomposition of the organic substances takes place under anaerobic conditions.
The anaerobic decomposition releases gases (carbon dioxide, methane and
sulphuric gases) and reduces the volume of sludge.
Seepage of water into the surrounding soil takes place through the sides and
bottom of the pit. During seepage further decomposition of organic matter by
soil bacteria takes place reducing the BOD of the water. There will also be
die-off of bacteria and viruses during storage and as the water percolates
through the soil. Bacteria under these conditions do generally not remove
nutrients, so pollution of groundwater will occur.
Control of odour and insects
are important with a pit latrine. This is achieved by having a vented pit
(Figure 7). The vent acts to draw odour and insects into the pit and up the
vent. Gases (methane and carbon dioxide) produced by the decomposition of the
excreta also leave through the vent. Ensuring that the vent protrudes well above
the roof of the housing allows ventilation through natural convection. Facing
the vent towards the sun (southward in the Northern hemisphere and northward in
the Southern hemisphere) and painting the vent black to maximise absorption of
heat from the sun will help venting by heat convection. The heated air in the
vent rises and draws air from the toilet. Ventilated improved pit (VIP) toilets
are widely used in Africa.
Pit latrines pose problems when groundwater is shallow and the pit is in
groundwater or close to it. There is no soil barrier to protect the water
quality of the groundwater, and mosquitoes may breed inside the pit. A pit is
also difficult to dig when the ground is rocky. Pit latrines should not be used
in these cases.
The pit will eventually fill with faecal sludge and needs to be emptied. The
period between emptying depends on the size of the pit and its usage. It is
desirable to design the pit to store at least one year of sludge production.
Emptying requires mechanical suction of the sludge. The sludge requires
treatment prior to re-use or disposal (see Section 5). Two adjoining pits can be
used alternately. Further decomposition of sludge in a full pit takes place
while the adjacent pit is in use. Its content after further decomposition can be
An alternative way of dealing with a full pit is to dig another pit and
relocate the sanitary platform and toilet housing to the new pit. The full old
pit can then be covered with soil, preferably of greater than 15 cm depth to
prevent disease vectors (rodents and insects) from burrowing into it.
Rather than the decomposition of the faecal sludge under anaerobic conditions
(no oxygen) in the pit of a pit latrine, decomposition under aerobic conditions
(with oxygen) can be promoted in an above ground (elevated) latrine (Figure 8).
Air can be introduced through an opening to pass through the sludge and exit
through the vent, while excess liquid is allowed to drain for collection or
evaporation. With two adjoining composting chambers or vaults used alternately,
the process of composting in an already full chamber can be allowed to proceed
until the chamber is to be used again, and produce mature compost for direct
re-use in the garden. Other household organic wastes (e.g. food wastes) can be
added to the faecal sludge, and materials such as newspaper or sawdust can be
added to balance the carbon to nitrogen ratio for optimal composting. Because
mature compost takes several months to produce under ambient temperatures, it is
desirable for the chambers to be sized to hold at least 6 months of waste. Worms
can also be added to assist with vermi-composting. Further details on handling
and composting of sludge can be found in Section 5.
4.1.3 Pour flush toilet
A pour flush toilet (Figure
9) has a water seal. The problems associated with odour and insects are avoided
by having the water seal. Excreta deposited in the latrine pan is flushed by
pouring 2 to 3 L of water into it. The mixture is directed into a pit in the
same way as for a pit latrine. The processes of biodegradation of the organic
wastes in the pit are exactly the same. More water percolates through the soil
surrounding the pit, and the potential for groundwater pollution is higher. A
pour flush toilet with a pit is therefore not suitable when groundwater table is
close to the surface.
Sludge has to be regularly emptied from the pit. The use of two adjoining
pits alternately enables the sludge in a full pit to undergo further
decomposition while the other pit is being used, and enables manual sludge
emptying after further sludge decomposition.
With the use of the pit latrine, composting toilet and pour flush latrine,
greywater (sullage) has to be separately treated. Greywater can be reused
directly or after treatment (see Section 6 on Wastewater Reuse). Disposal of
greywater on-site is by use of a leach pit or trench (See below under Septic
tank). Limitations of disposal of greywater by leach pit or trench are similar
to those applicable to septic tank.