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United Nations Environment Programme
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Freshwater Management Series No. 7

Phytotechnologies

A Technical Approach in Environmental Management


Cover photo The purpose of this publication is to provide a conceptual overview of phytotechnologies and their importance in relation to various environmental problems and potential solutions. Although it does not address all aspects of phytotechnology, it does provide the basis of a conceptual framework for understanding the importance of ecosystems approaches in helping to achieve sustainable development objectives. It also examines the role of phytotechnology in relation to some key issues including integrated water resources management, urban environmental management, biodiversity and climate change.

(Webmaster's note: The glossary may be accessed by clicking the corresponding vocabulary set in blue type).

PREFACE
 
SUMMARY
 
I. INTRODUCTION – AN ECOSYSTEM'S PERSPECTIVE
  Introduction
    A. Environmentally Sound Technologies
    B. Ecological Engineering and Ecotechnologies
    C. Phytotechnology
    D. UNEP’s Interest in Phytotechnology
         
II. GLOBAL ISSUES REQUIRING INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS
    Introduction
      A. Biodiversity and the Biodiversity Convention
      B. Biotechnology and the Biosafety Protocol
      C. Integrated Water Resources Management and Ecohydrology
      D. Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems
      E. Climate Change
      F. Valuation of Ecological Services and Natural Capital
         
III. EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF PHYTOTECHNOLOGY
    Introduction
      A. Ecotone Protection and Augmentation
      B. Natural Wetlands
      C. Constructed Wetlands
      D. Floating Macrophytes and Root Zone Plants for Improving Water Quality
      E. Combined Waste Stabilisation Ponds and Wetlands
      F Use of Plantations for Wastewater Treatment
      G. Use of Floodlands for Water Quality Improvement and Eutrophication Control
      H. Phytoremediation
      I. Forestry and Agriculture
      J. Bio-Energy
         
IV. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF PHYTOTECHNOLOGIES
    Introduction
      A. Site Characterization
      B. Plant Selection
      C. Modelling
      D. Operations and Maintenance
      E. Monitoring
      F. Contingency Planning
      G. Expertise
         
V. KEY ISSUES AND FUTURE ACTIONS
    Introduction
      A. Awareness Raising
      B. Transparency and Accountability
      C. Effective Regulations
      D. Integrating Science and Technology
      .  
About UNEP / DTIE
         
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
         
GLOSSARY
         
* Copyright
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