About UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics
top image
space space space
Newsletter and Technical Publications
<Municipal Solid Waste Management>

IETC's Technical Publication Series No.6 The project "International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) for Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM)" was initiated in response to the Rio Declaration and to the recommendations of Agenda 21, Chapters 21 and 34, specifically for the purpose of promoting the transfer and application of ESTs for improved management of municipal solid wastes.

This Source Book is directed toward MSWM decision-makers of developing countries and countries in transition, NGOs and community-based organizations involved in waste management. The Book also aims to serve as a general reference guide to researchers, scientists, science and technology institutions and private industries on a global state-of-the-art on ESTs for MSWM.

The publication provides a list of information sources as well as overviews of practices in the world regions relating to environmentally sound management of municipal solid waste (waste reduction, collection and transfer, composting, incineration, landfills, special wastes, waste characterization, management and planning, training, public education and financing). Parts of the book can be viewed within this website.

The list of information sources, containing information on nearly 300 organisations working on municipal solid waste management, is available by using our Searchable Information Directory on ESTs called "maESTro" within this web site. It provides various information such as a contact addresses, organisational profiles, specific fields covered, missions and mandates, and materials and services available from each organisation.



----- Table of Contents -----

1.Sound Practices


1.1 Overview of the Sound Practices Section
1.1.1 Introduction
1.1.2 Criteria for evaluating alternatives
1.1.3 Background conditions that affect sound practices
1.1.4 The need for planning
1.1.5 Prologue to the six sound practice subsections


1.2 Waste Reduction
1.2.1 Introduction
1.2.2 Systems of waste reduction and materials recovery
1.2.3 Is municipally sponsored reduction and recovery appropriate?
1.2.4 Sound practices for cities of developing countries
1.2.5 International trading of recyclables
1.2.6 Conclusion


1.3 Collection and Transfer
1.3.1 Introduction
1.3.2 Sound technical options - collection
1.3.3 Sound technical options - transfer
1.3.4 Sound technical options - street sweeping
1.3.5 Technical, regional, and development issues and criteria
1.3.6 Economic, institutional, and legislative elements of sound practice
1.3.7 An example of sound practice


1.4 Composting
1.4.1 Introduction
1.4.2 Sound technical options
1.4.3 Environmental impacts of composting
1.4.4 Example of sound practice
1.4.5 Important Problems and questions
1.4.6 Conclusion


1.5 Incineration
1.5.1 Introduction
1.5.2 System types
1.5.3 Energy production
1.5.4 Managing environmental impacts of air emissions and reshuffle ash
1.5.5 Integration with other system components


1.6 Landfills
1.6.1 Introduction
1.6.2 Planning
1.6.3 Classification
1.6.4 Sound technical options
1.6.5 Additional considerations
1.6.6 Conclusion


1.7 Special Wastes
1.7.1 Introduction
1.7.2 Medical waste
1.7.3 Household hazardous waste
1.7.4 Tires
1.7.5 Used oils
1.7.6 Wet batteries
1.7.7 Construction and demolition debris
1.7.8 Sewage sludge, septage, and slaughterhouse wastes
1.7.9 Industrial waste

2.Regional Overviews and Information Sources

2.1 Africa
2.2 Asia
2.3 Europe
2.4 Latin America and the Caribbean
2.5 North America


  • Brochure
  • IETC Brochure

  • International Year of Forests
  • International Year of Forests

  • World Environment Day
  • ??????

  • UNEP Campaign
  • UNite to Combat Climate Change